Many interdisciplinary studies of the interaction of informal social norms and formal legal rules have been conducted by legal scholars, economists and other researchers who have utilized concepts of norms from anthropology and sociology and applied them in new contexts.
Set forth below is a non-exhaustive list of books, articles, symposia, and other resources that address a number of these issues. Part I lists books, articles and symposia. Part II lists some related internet resources. Please note: Sources presenting interdisciplinary studies in Anthropology and Law are listed in a separate bibliography.
I. Books and ArticlesAgarwal, Bina. 1997. "Bargaining" and Gender Relations: Within and Beyond the Household. 3 Feminist Economics 1-51.
Akerlof, George A. 1980. A Theory of Social Custom, of Which Unemployment May Be One Consequence. 94 Quarterly Journal of Economics 749-75.
Arce M., and G. Daniel. 1996. Social Norms, Inflation and Stabilization. 8 Rationality and Society 277-94.
Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Axelrod, Robert. 1986. An Evolutionary Approach to Norms. 80 American Political Science Review 1095.
Axelrod, Robert. 1997. The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and Collaboration. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Axelrod, Robert, and Michael D. Cohen. 2000. Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific Frontier. New York: Basic Books.
Axelrod, Robert, and Robert O. Keohane 1985. Achieving Cooperation Under Anarchy: Strategies and Institutions. 38 World Politics 226-54.
Baird, Douglas R., Robert H. Gertner, and Randal C. Picker 1994. Reputation and Repeated Games. In Game Theory and the Law. Baird, Douglas R., Robert H. Gertner, and Randal C. Picker, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Baker, Katherine K. 1999. Sex, Rape, and Shame. 79 Boston University Law Review 663.
Balk, D. 1997. Defying Gender Norms in Rural Bangladesh: A Social Demographic Analysis. 51 Population Studies 153-72.
Berggren, Niclas. 1996. Social Order through Constitutional Choice: A Contractarian Proposal. 89 Public Choice 339-61.
Bernheim, B. Douglas. 1994. A Theory of Conformity. 102 Journal of Political Economics 841.
Bernstein, Lisa. 1992. Opting Out of the Legal System: Extralegal Contractual Relations in the Diamond Industry. 21(1) Journal of Legal Studies 115-57.
Bernstein, Lisa . 1993 Social Norms and Default Rule Analysis. 3 Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 59.
Bernstein, Lisa. 1996. Merchant Law in a Merchant Court: Rethinking the Code's Search for Immanent Business Norms. 144 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1765.
Bikchandani, Sushil, David Hirshleifer, and Ivo Welch. 1992. A Theory of Fads, Fashions, Custom, and Cultural Changes as Informational Cascades. 100 Journal of Political Economy 992.
Billet, L. 1975. Political Order and Economic Development: Reflections on Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations. 23 Political Studies 430-41.
Bilmes, Jack. 1976. Rules and Rhetoric: Negotiating the Social Order in a Thai Village. 32 Journal of Anthropological Research 44-57.
Blamey, Russell. 1997. Contingent Valuation and the Activation of Environmental Norms. 24 Ecological Economics 47-72.
Bohnet, Iris, and Bruno S. Frey 1994. Direct-Democratic Rules: The Role of Discussion. 47 Kyklos 341-54.
Bordley, Robert F. 1985. Systems Simulation Comparing Different Decision Rules. 30 Behavioral Science 230-39.
Botticini, Maristella. 1999. Social Norms and Intergenerational Transfers in a Pre-Modern Economy: Florence, 1260-1435. In ISNIE 99 (CD-ROM). Washington, DC: International Society for the New Institutional Economics.
Bowles, Samuel. 1998. Endogenous Preferences: The Cultural Consequences of Markets and Other Economic Institutions. 36 Journal of Economic Literature 75-111.
Brams, Steven J. 1994. Theory of Moves. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brennan, Geoffrey, and James M. Buchanan 1985. The Reason of Rules: Constitutional Political Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brion, Denis J. Norms and Values in Law and Economics. In 1 Encyclopedia of Law and Economics 1041. Boudewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit de Geest, eds. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Bromley, Daniel W. 1978. Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Environmental Economics. 12 Journal of Economic Issues 43-60.
Brown, Darryl K. 2001. Street Crime, Corporate Crime, and the Contingency of Criminal Liability. 149 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1295.
Buckner, Taylor H. 1970. Transformations of Reality in the Legal Process. 37 Social Research 88-101.
Bull, Hedley. 1996. How is Order Maintained in World Politics? In The International Political Economy and International Institutions, Vol. 2. O. R. Young, ed. Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar. (The Library of International Political Economy, no. 10).
Burns, Tom R., and Thomas Dietz 1992. Cultural Evolution: Social Rule Systems, Selection and Human Agency. 7 International Sociology 259-83.
Cahn, Naomi. 2002. Faithless Wives and Lazy Husbands: Gender Norms in Nineteenth-Century Divorce Law. 2002 University of Illinois Law Review 651.
Cappel, Andrew J. 2003. Bringing Cultural Practice into Law: Ritual and Social Norms Jurisprudence. 43 Santa Clara Law Review 389.
Carlson, Ann E. 2001. Recycling Norms. 89 California Law Review 1231.
Carr, Jack L., and Janet T. Landa. 1983. The Economics of Symbols, Clan Names, and Religion. 12(1) Journal of Legal Studies 135-56.
Chapman, Bruce. 1998. More Easily Done Than Said: Rules, Reasons and Regional Social Choice. 18 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 293.
Charny, David. 1990. Nonlegal Sanctions in Commercial Relationships. 104 Harvard Law Review 373.
Charny, David. 1996. Illusions of a Spontaneous Order: Norms in Contractual Relationships. 144 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1841-58.
Chong, Dennis. 2000. Rational Lives: Norms and Value in Politics and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Coglianese, Cary. 1997. Assessing Consensus: The Promise and Performance of Negotiated Rulemaking. 46 Duke Law Journal 1255-1349.
Cohen, Albert K. 1971. The Rules of the Game. In The Study of Social Problems: Five Perspectives. E. Rubington and M. S. Weinberg eds., 54-62. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, Dov, and Joe Vandello. 1998. Meanings of Violence. 27(2) Journal of Legal Studies pt. 2, 567-84.
Coleman, James S. 1987. Norms as Social Capital. In Economic Imperialism. The Economic Approach Applied Outside the Field of Economics. G. Radnitzky and P. Bernholz, eds. New York: Paragon House.
Coleman, James S. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Coleman, James S. 1990. Norm-Generating Structures. In The Limits of Rationality. K. S. Cook, and M. Levi, eds., 250-73. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Coleman, James S. 1991. Constructed Organization: First Principles. 7 Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 7-23.
Comaroff, John L., and Simon A. Roberts. 1977. The Invocation of Norms in Dispute Settlement: The Tswana Case. In Social Anthropology and Law, I. Hamnett, ed. New York: Academic Press.
Comaroff, John L., and Simon A. Roberts. 1981. Rules and Processes: The Cultural Logic of Dispute in an African Context. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cooter, Robert D. 1995. Law and Unified Social Theory. 22 Journal of Law and Society 50.
Cooter, Robert D. 1996. The Structural Approach to Adjudicating the New Law Merchant. 144 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1643.
Cooter, Robert. 1997. Normative Failure Theory of Law. 82(5) Cornell Law Review 947-79.
Cooter, Robert D. 1997. Punitive Damages, Social Norms, and Economic Analysis. 60 Law and Contemporary Problems 73.
Cooter, Robert D. 1998. Expressive Law and Economics. 27(2) Journal of Legal Studies pt 2, 585-608 (1998).
Cooter, Robert D. 2000. Three Effects of Social Norms on Law: Expression, Deterrence, and Internalization. 79 Oregon Law Review 1.
Cooter, Robert D., and Janet T. Landa. 1984. Personal vs. Impersonal Trade: The Size of Trading Groups and the Law of Contracts. 4 (June) International Review of Law and Economics 15-22.
Cooter, Robert, and Ariel Porat. 2001. Should Courts Deduct Nonlegal Sanctions From Damages? 30 Journal of Legal Studies 401-22.
Crawford, Sue E. S., and Elinor Ostrom 1995. A Grammar of Institutions. 89 American Political Science Review 582-600.
Croley, Steven P., and Jon D. Hanson. 1995. The Nonpecuniary Costs of Accidents: Pain-and-suffering Damages in Tort Law. 108 Harvard Law Review 1785.
Currie, David, and Paul Levine 1994. Rules, Reputation and Macroeconomic Policy Coordination. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenberg, Melvin A. 1999. Corporate Law and Social Norms. 99 Columbia Law Review 1253.
Ellickson, Robert C. 1986. Of Coase and Cattle: Dispute Resolution Among Neighbors in Shasta County. 38 Stanford Law Review 623-87.
Ellickson, Robert C. 1987. A Critique of Economic and Sociological Theories of Social Control. 17 Journal of Legal Studies 67.
Ellickson, Robert C. 1991. Order without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ellickson, Robert C. 1998. Law and Economics Discovers Social Norms. 27(2) Journal of Legal Studies pt. 2, 537-52.
Ellickson, Robert C. 2001. The Market for Social Norms. 3 American Law and Economics Review 1.
Elster, Jon. 1989. The Cement of Society: A Study of Social Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elster, Jon. 1989. Social Norms and Economic Theory. 3 Journal of Economic Perspectives 99-117.
Elster, Jon. 1990. Norms of Revenge. 100 Ethics 862.
Elster, Jon, and Rune Slagstad, eds. 1993. Constitutionalism and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ensminger, Jean, and Jack Knight. 1997. Changing Social Norms: Common Property, Bridewealth, and Clan Exogamy. 38(1) Current Anthropology 1-24.
Epstein, Joshua M., and Robert Axtell. 1996. Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Epstein, Richard A. 1992. The Path to The T.J. Hooper: The Theory and History of Custom in the Law of Tort. 21(1) Journal of Legal Studies 1-38.
Eskridge, William N., Jr. 2000. No Promo Homo: The Sedimentation of Antigay Discourse and the Channeling Effect of Judicial Review. 75 New York University Law Review 1327.
Etzioni, Amitai. 2000. Social Norms: Internalization, Persuasion, and History. 34 Law and Society Review 157.
Fehr, Ernst, and Simon Gächter. 2000. Fairness and Retaliation: The Economics of Reciprocity. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Summer 2000, 159.
Fehr, Ernst, and Simon Gächter. 2000. Fairness and Retaliation. In The Economics of Reciprocity, Giving and Altruism, L. Gérard-Varet, S. Kolm, and J. M. Ythier, eds., 153-73. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Fehr, Ernst, Erich Kirchler, and Andreas Weichbold. 1998. When Social Forces Remove the Impact of Competition: Social Exchange in Experimental Labor Markets. 16 Journal of Labor Economics 321-54.
Feldman, Yuval. 2002. An Experimental Approach to the Study of Social Norms: The Allocation of Intellectual Property Rights in the Workplace. 10 Journal of Intellectual Property Law 59.
Fennell, Lee A. 1994. Interdependence and Choice in Distributive Justice: The Welfare Conundrum. 1994 Wisconsin Law Review 235.
Fennell, Lee A. 2001. Beyond Exit and Voice: User Participation in the Production of Local Public Goods. 80 Texas Law Review 1.
Fennell, Lee A. 2002. Homes Rule: The Homevoter Hypothesis: How Home Values Influence Local Government Taxation, School Finance, and Land-Use Policies. 112 Yale Law Journal 617.
Feyerherm, Ann E. 1995. Changing and Converging Mind-Sets of Participants During Collaborative, Environmental Rule Making: Two Negotiated Regulation Case Studies. In Sustaining the Natural Environment: Empirical Studies on the Interface between Nature and Organizations. D. Collins and M. Starik eds. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Field, Alexander J. 1979. Microeconomics, Socialization, and Norms. Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance, School of Education, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. (Program Report, no. 79-A15).
Field, Alexander J. 1979. On the Explanation of Rules Using Rational Choice Models. 13 Journal of Economic Issues 49-72.
Flanagan, James F., and Steven Rayner, eds. 1988. Rules, Decisions, and Inequality in Equalitarian Societies. Brookfield, VT: Gower.
Frank, Robert H. 1985. Choosing the Right Pond: Human Behavior and the Quest for Status. New York: Oxford University Press.
Frank, Robert H. 1987. If Homo Erectus Could Choose His Own Utility Function, Would He Want One with a Conscience? 77 American Economic Review 593.
Fremling, Gertrud M., and Richard A. Posner. 1999. Status Signaling and the Law, With Particular Application to Sexual Harassment. 147(5) University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1069-109.
Frey, Bruno S. 1996. Fair Siting Procedures: An Empirical Analysis of Their Importance and Characteristics. 15 Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 353-76.
Frey, Bruno S., and Iris Bohnet. 1996. Cooperation, Communication and Communitarianism: An Experimental Approach. 4 Journal of Political Philosophy 322-36.
Gardner, Roy, and Elinor Ostrom. 1991. Rules and Games. 70 Public Choice 121-49.
Geisinger, Alex. 2002. A Belief Change Theory of Expressive Law. 88 Iowa Law Review 35.
Gibbs, Christopher J. N., and Daniel W. Bromley. 1989. Institutional Arrangements for Management of Rural Resources: Common-Property Regimes. In Common Property Resources: Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development. F. Berkes, ed. London: Belhaven.
Gilman, Daniel. 2002. Of Fruitcakes and Patriot Games. 90 Georgetown Law Journal 2387.
Gneezy, Uri, and Aldo Rustichini. 2000. A Fine is a Price. 29 Journal of Legal Studies 1-17.
Goodman, Ryan. 2001. Beyond the Enforcement Principle: Sodomy Laws, Social Norms, and Social Panoptics. 89 California Law Review 643.
Gouldner, Alvin W. 1954. About the Functions of Bureaucratic Rules. In Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy. New York: The Free Press.
Gouldner, Alvin W. 1960. The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement. 25 American Sociology Review 161.
Greenhouse, Carol J. 1982. Looking at Culture, Looking for Rules. 17(1) Man (NS) 58-73.
Greif, Avner, Paul Milgram, and Barry R. Weingast. 1994. Coordination, Commitment, and Enforcement: The Case of the Merchant Guild. 102(4) Journal of Political Economy 745-76.
Haber, Joram G., and Mark S. Halfon, eds. 1998. Norms and Values: Essays on the Works of Virginia Held. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Hanna, Susan S., Carl Folke, and Karl-Gören Mäler, eds. 1996. Rights to Nature; Ecological, Economic, Cultural, and Political Principles of Institutions for the Environment. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Harcourt, Bernard E. 1998. Reflecting on the Subject: A Critique of the Social Influence Conception of Deterrence, the Broken Windows Theory, and Order-maintenance Policing New York Style. 97 Michigan Law Review 291.
Harcourt, Bernard E. 2000. After the "Social Meaning Turn:" Implications for Research Design and Methods of Proof in Contemporary Criminal Law Policy Analysis. 34 Law and Society Review 179.
Hardin, Russell. 1990. Contractarianism: Wistful Thinking. 1 Constitutional Political Economy 35-52.
Hasen, Richard L. 1996. Voting without Law? 144 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 2135.
Hay, Jonathan R., and Andrei Schleifer. 1998. Private Enforcement of Public Laws: A Theory of Legal Reform. 88 American Economic Review 398-403.
Hayami, Yujiro. 1998. Norms and Rationality in the Evolution of Economic Systems: A View from Asian Villages. 49 Japanese Economic Review 36-53.
Heckathorn, Douglas D., and Robert S. Broadhead. 1996. Rational Choice, Public Policy and AIDS. 8 Rationality and Society 235-60.
Hegmann, Horst. 1997. Differing World-Views and Collective Action: The Case of Research. 8 Constitutional Political Economy 179-94.
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Henrich, Joseph, et al. 2001. In Search of Homo Economicus: Behavioral Experiments in Fifteen Small-Scale Societies. 91 American Economic Review 73.
Hetcher, Steven A. 1999. Creating Safe Social Norms in a Dangerous World. 73 Southern California Law Review 1.
Hetcher, Steven A. 2001. Norm Proselytizers Create A Privacy Entitlement in Cyberspace. 16 Berkeley Technology L aw Journal 877.
Hill, Claire A. 2001. Theory Informs Business Practice: A Comment on Language and Norms in Complex Business Contracting. 77 Chicago-Kent Law Review 29.
Hodgson, Geoffrey M. 1998. The Approach of Institutional Economics. 36 Journal of Economic Literature 166-92.
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Huang, Peter H., and Ho-Mou Wu. 1994. More Order without More Law: A Theory of Social Norms and Organizational Cultures. 10 Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 390.
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Kahan, Dan M., and Eric A. Posner. 1999. Shaming White-collar Criminals: A Proposal for Reform of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 42(1, Pt. 2) Journal of Law and Economics 365-91.
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II. Internet ResourcesSome related, online bibliographies:
Law and Economics resources:
Distributive Justice web site:
Int'l Ass'n for Study of Common Property:
Ernst Fehr's Research on Fairness and Reciprocity:
Interview with Eric Posner:
Norms Social and Legal, by Richard Epstein:
Social Science Research Network:
Internet Resources for Law and Anthropology:
Internet Sources on Anthropology and Law
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