Interdisciplinary studies in Anthropology and Law (also called "Legal Anthropology") include the following general subject areas (among others): human rights; the clash of non-western and western cultural beliefs and related legal structures; legal pluralism in multicultural settings; rights of minorities and religious groups; criticisms of racial concepts; rights of indigenous peoples, including land claims and intellectual property rights in their cultural beliefs and knowledge; non-western and alternative methods of dispute or conflict resolution; and analysis of the cultural dynamics at play within western legal systems.
Set forth below is a non-exhaustive list of books, articles, and other resources that address a number of these issues. Part I lists books and and articles. Part II lists journals that publish primarily on related topics. Part III lists internet resources, including associations, online journal archives, law and anthropology resources, and legal studies information.
Please note: Sources presenting interdisciplinary studies concerning Social Norms and Law are listed in a separate bibliography. Also available online are the syllabus and a list of potential paper topics for this Anthropology and Law seminar.
I. Books and ArticlesAbel, Richard L. 1974. A Comparative Theory of Dispute Institutions in Society. 8(2) Law and Society Review 218-347.
Akbar, Na'im. 1984. Africentric Social Sciences for Human Liberation. 14(4) Journal of Black Studies 395-414. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 367-86.
Amsterdam, Anthony, and Jerome Bruner. 2000. Minding the Law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed. 1992. Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Anleu, Sharyn L. R. 2000. Law and Social Change. London: Sage Publications.
Appiah, K. Anthony. 1994. Identity, Authenticity, Survival: Multicultural Societies and Social Reproduction. In Multiculturalism. Amy Gutman, ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Aromand, Said Amir. 1989. Constitution-Making in Islamic Iran: The Impact of Theocracy on the Legal Order of a Nation-State. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 113-30.
Assies, Willem, Gemma van der Haar, and Andre Hoeckema, eds., 1999. The Challenge of Diversity: Indigenous Peoples and Reform of the State in Latin America. Amsterdam: Thela-Thesis.
Aubert, Vilhelm. 1969. Law as a Way of Resolving Conflicts: The Case of a Small Industrialized Society. In Nader, ed., 1969, 282-303.
Aubert, Vilhelm. 1989. Law and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Norway. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 55-80.
Auerbach, J. S. 1983. Justice without Law? New York: Oxford University Press.
Banakar, Reza, and Max Travers, eds. 2002. An Introduction to Law and Social Theory. Portland: Hart Publishing.
Bell, Diane. 1992. Considering Gender: Are Human Rights for Women, Too? An Australian Case. In An-Na'im, ed., 1992, 339-62.
Benda-Beckman, F. von. 1997. Citizens, Strangers, and Indigenous Peoples: Conceptual Politics and Legal Pluralism. 9 Law and Anthropology: International Yearbook for Legal Anthropology 1-42.
Biolsi, Thomas. 2001. Deadliest Enemies: Law and the Making of Race Relations on and off Rosebud Reservation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Black, Donald J. 1972. The Boundaries of Legal Sociology. 81 Yale Law Journal 1086-1100. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 31-46.
Blackwood, Evelyn. 2014. Language and Non-Normative Gender and Sexuality in Indonesia. In Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, edited by Lal Zimman, Jenny L. Davis, and Joshua Raclaw, pp. 81-100. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bisharat, George E. 1989. Palestinian Lawyers and Israeli Rule: Law and Disorder in the West Bank. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Black, Donald. 1981. The Relevance of Legal Anthropology. 10 Contemporary Sociology 43-46.
Blok, Anton. 1989. The Symbolic Vocabulary of Public Executions. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 31-54.
Bohannan, Paul. 1957. Justice and Judgment Among the Tiv. London: Oxford Univ. Press.
Bohannan, Paul. 1965. The Differing Realms of Law. 67(6) American Anthropologist pt. 2, 33-42. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 185-94.
Bohannan, Paul. 1969. Ethnography and Comparison in Legal Anthropology. In Nader, ed., 1969, 401-18.
Boissevain, Jeremy and Hanneke Grotenberg. 1989. Entrepreneurs and the Law: Self-employed Surinamese in Amsterdam. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 223-51.
Born, Georgina. 1996. (Im)materiality and Sociality: The Dynamics of Intellectual Property in a Computer Software Research Culture. 4 Social Anthropology 101-16. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 547-62.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1987. The Force of Law: Toward a Sociology of the Juridical Field. 38 Hastings Law Review 805-53. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 109-58.
Brenneis, D. 1988. Language and Disputing. 17 Annual Review of Anthropology 221-37.
Brown, Michael F. 1998. Can Culture be Copyrighted? 39 Current Anthropology 193-222. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 517-46.
Brown, Michael F. 2003. Who Owns Native Culture? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Caplan, Pat, ed. 1995. Understanding Disputes: The Politics of Argument. Oxford: Berg.
Chanock, Martin. 1985. Law, Custom and Social Order: The Colonial Experience in Malawi and Zambia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chiba, Masaji. 1989. Three Dichotomies of Law in Pluralism, in Legal Pluralism: Toward a General Theory through Japanese Legal Culture, 171-180. Tokyo: Tokai University Press. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 415-24.
Chunn, Dorothy, and Dany Lacombe, eds. 2000. Law as a Gendering Practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohn, Bernard. 1989. Law and the Colonial State in India. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 131-52.
Collier, George A. 1989. The Impact of the Second Republic Labor Reforms in Spain. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 201-22.
Collier, Jane F. 1973. Law and Social Change in Zincantan. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Collier, Jane F. 1975. Legal Processes. 4 Annual Review of Anthropology 121-44.
Collier, Jane F., Bill Maurer, and Liliana Suárez-Navaz. 1995. Sanctioned Identities: Legal Constructions of Modern Parenthood. 2 Identities 1-27. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 211-38.
Colvin, Eric. 1978. The Sociology of Secondary Rules. 28 University of Toronto Law Journal 195-214. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 195-214.
Comaroff, John L., and Simon A. Roberts. 1981. Rules and Processes: The Cultural Logic of Dispute in an African Context. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
Commission for Intellectual Property Rights. 2002. Final Report: Commission for Intellectual Property Rights: Integrating Intellectual Property Rights and Development Policy (consulted April 2002): http://www.iprcommission.org.
Conklin, Beth A. 2002. Shamans v. Pirates in the Amazonian Treasure Chest. 104 American Anthropologist 1050-61.
Conley, John M., and William M. O'Barr. 1990. Rules Versus Relationships: The Ethnography of Legal Discourse. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
Conley, John M., and William M. O'Barr. 1993. Legal Anthropology Comes Home: A Brief History of the Ethnographic Study of Law. 27 Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 41.
Conley, John M., and William M. O'Barr. 1998. Just Words: Law, Language, and Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Conley, John M., and William M. O'Barr. 2003. Back to the Trobriands: The Enduring Influence of Malinowski's "Crime and Custom in Savage Society." 27 Law and Social Inquiry 847-74.
Coombe, Rosemary. 1989. Toward a Theory of Practice in Critical Legal Studies. 1989 Law and Social Inquiry 69.
Coombe, Rosemary. 1998. The Cultural Life of Intellectual Properties: Authorship, Appropriation, and the Law. Durham: Duke University Press.
Cooter, Robert. 1995. Law and Unified Social Theory. 22 Journal of Law and Society 50.
Cotterrell, Roger. 1983. The Sociological Concept of Law. 10 Journal of Law and Society 241-55. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 3-18.
Cotterrell, Roger. 1995. Law's Community: Legal Theory in Sociological Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
Coutin, Susan Bibler. 1993. The Culture of Protest: Religious Activism and the U.S. Sanctuary Movement. Boulder: Westview Press.
Coutin, Susan Bibler. 2000. Legalizing Moves: Salvadoran Immigrants' Struggle for U.S. Residency. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Cowan, Jane K. 2001. Ambiguities of an Emancipatory Discourse: The Making of a Macedonian Minority in Greece. In Cowan et al., eds., 2001, 152-76.
Cowan, Jane K., Marie-Bénédicte Dembour, and Richard A. Wilson, eds. 2001. Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Culhane, Dara. 1998. The Pleasure of the Crown: Anthropology, Law and First Nations. Ontario: Talonbooks.
Danielsen, Dan, and Karen Engle, eds. 1995. After Identity: A Reader in Law and Culture. New York: Routledge.
Darien-Smith, Eve. 1999. Bridging Divides: The Channel Tunnel and English Legal Identity in the New Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Darien-Smith, Eve, and Peter Fitzpatrick, editors. 1999. Laws of the Postcolonial. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michgan Press.
Dau-Schmidt, Kenneth G. 1997. Economics and Sociology: The Prospects for an Interdisciplinary Discourse on Law. 1997 Wisconsin Law Review 389.
Davis, F. James. 1978. Toward a Theory of Law in Society. 11 Sociological Focus 127-41. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 75-89.
Davis, Jenny L. 2014. "More Than Just 'Gay Indians'": Intersecting Articulations of Two-Spirit Gender, Sexuality, and Indigenousness. In Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, edited by Lal Zimman, Jenny L. Davis, and Joshua Raclaw, pp. 62-80. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dembour, Marie-Bénédicte. 2001. Following the Movement of a Pendulum: Between Universalism and Relativism. In Cowan et al., eds., 2001, 56-79.
Dirks, Nicholas B. 1986. From Little King to Landlord: Property, Law, and the Gift under the Madras Permanent Settlement. 29 Comparative Studies in Society and History 307-33. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 607-34.
Dombrowski, Kirk. 2002. The Praxis of Indigenism and Alaska Native Timber Politics. 104 American Anthropologist 1062-73.
Drummond, Susan G. 1997. Incorporating the Familiar: An Investigation into Legal Sensibilities in Nunavik. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Dwyer, Daisy H. 1979. Substance and Process: Reappraising the Premises of the Anthropology of Law. 4 Dialectical Anthropology 309-20. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 53-64.
Edelman, Elijah A. 2014. Neither In Nor Out: Taking the "T" Out of the Closet. In Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, edited by Lal Zimman, Jenny L. Davis, and Joshua Raclaw, pp. 150-169. New York: Oxford University Press.
Engle, Karen. 1992. Female Subjects of Public International Law: Human Rights and the Exotic Other Female. 26 New England Law Review 1509.
Evan, William M. 1990. Social Structure and Law: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. London: Sage Publications.
Epstein, A. L. 1973. The Reasonable Man Revisited: Some Problems in the Anthropology of Law. 7 Law and Society Review 643-66.
Epstein, A. L., ed. 1974. Contention and Dispute: Aspects of Law and Social Control in Melanesia. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Erisksen, Thomas H. 2001. Between Universalism and Relativism: A Critique of the UNESCO Concept of Culture. In Cowan et al., eds., 2001, 127-48.
Ewing, Sally. 1987. Formal Justice and the Spirit of Capitalism: Max Weber's Sociology of Law. 21 Law and Society Review 487-512. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 251-76.
Falk, R. 1992. Cultural Foundations for the International Protection of Human Rights. In An-Na'im, ed., 1992, 44-64.
Feeley, Malcolm M. 1976. The Concept of Laws in Social Science: A Critique and Notes on an Expanded View. 10 Law and Society Review 497-523. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 47-74.
Felstiner, William, Abel, Richard L., and Sarat, Austin. 1980-81. The Emergence and Transformation of Disputes: Naming, Blaming, Claiming. 15(3-4) Law and Society Review 631-54.
Fennell, Christopher C., and Lee Anne Fennell. 2003. Fear and Greed in Tax Policy: A Qualitative Research Agenda. 13 Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 75-138.
Filoiali'i, La'auli A., and Lyle Knowles. 1983. The Ifoga: The Samoan Practice of Seeking Forgiveness for Criminal Behaviour. 53(4) Oceania 384-88. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 481-86.
Fitzpatrick, Peter. 1980. Law and State in Papua New Guinea. London: Academic Press.
Fitzpatrick, Peter. 1984. Law and Societies. 22 Osgoode Hall Law Review 115-38. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 3-26.
Fitzpatrick, Peter. 1985. Is It Simple to be a Marxist in Legal Anthropology? 48 Modern Law Review 472-85.
Fitzpatrick, Peter. 1993. The Impossibility of Popular Justice. In Merry & Milner, eds., 1993, 453-74.
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn. 1998. Cultural Relativism and Universal Human Rights. AnthroNotes 20(2): 1-7. Fox, Robin. 1997. Reproduction and Succession: Studies in Anthropology, Law and Society. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Frake, Charles O. 1969. Struck by Speech: The Yakan Concept of Litigation. In Nader, ed., 1969, 147-67.
French, Jan H. 2006. Buried Alive: Imagining Africa in the Brazilian Northeast. 3(3) American Ethnologist (August 2006).
French, Jan H. 2005. Personal Encounters with the Work of Laura Nader. 39(4) Law and Society Review 957-64 (June 2005).
French, Jan H. 2004. Mestizaje and law Making in Indigenous Identity Formation in Northeastern Brazil: 'After the Conflict Came the History.' 106(4) American Anthropologist 663-74 (December 2004).
French, Jan H. 2002. Dancing for Land: Law Making and Cultural Performance in Northeastern Brazil. 25(1) Political and Legal Anthropology Review 19-36 (May 2002).
French, Rebecca R. 1995. The Golden Yoke: The Legal Cosmology of Buddhist Tibet. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
French, Rebecca R. 1996. Of Narrative in Law and Anthropology. 30 Law and Society Review 417.
Fuller, Lon L. 1969. Human Interaction and the Law. 14 American Journal of Jurisprudence 1-36. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 111-46.
Galligan, Denis J., editor. 1995. Socio-Legal Studies in Context: The Oxford Centre Past and Future. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Gaudio, Rudolf P. 2014. Acting Like Women, Acted Upon: Gender and Agency in Hausa Sexual Narrative. In Queer Excursions: Retheorizing Binaries in Language, Gender, and Sexuality, edited by Lal Zimman, Jenny L. Davis, and Joshua Raclaw, pp. 170-194. New York: Oxford University Press.
Geertz, Clifford. 1983. Local Knowledge: Fact and Law in Comparative Perspective. In Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
Geismar, Haidy. 2005. Reproduction, Creativity, Restriction: Material Culture and Copyright in Vanuatu, Journal of Social Archaeology 5(1): 25-51.
Gellner, David N. 2001. From Group Rights to Individual Rights and Back: Nepalese Struggles Over Culture and Equality. In Cowan et al., eds., 2001, 177-200.
Gibbs, Jack P. 1968. Definitions of Law and Empirical Questions. 2 Law and Society Review 429-46. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 167-84.
Gibbs, James L., Jr. 1969. Law and Personality: Signposts for a New Direction. In Nader, ed., 1969, 176-207.
Gluckman, Max. 1955. The Judicial Process among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia. Manchester: Univ. of Manchester Press.
Gluckman, Max. 1965. Politics, Law and Ritual in Tribal Society. Chicago: Aldine.
Gluckman, Max. 1969. Concepts in the Comparative Study of Tribal Law. In Nader, ed., 1969, 349-73.
Gluckman, Max. 1969. Ideas and Procedures in African Customary Law. London: Oxford University Press.
Gluckman, Max. 1974. African Traditional Law in Historical Perspective. London: Oxford University Press.
Goldberg, David T., Michael Musheno, and Lisa C. Bower, eds. 2001. Between Law and Culture: Relocating Legal Studies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Greaves, Tom, ed. 1994. Intellectual Property Rights for Indigenous Peoples: A Sourcebook. Oklahoma City: Society for Applied Anthropology.
Greenhouse, Carol J. 1982. Looking at Culture, Looking for Rules. 17(1) Man (NS) 58-73.
Greenhouse, Carol J. 1986. Praying for Justice: Faith, Order, and Community in an American Town. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.
Greenhouse, Carol J. 1989. Interpreting American Litigiousness. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 252-75.
Greenhouse, Carol J. 1989. Just in Time: Temporality and the Cultural Legitimation of Law. 98 Yale Law Journal 1631-51. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 319-40.
Greenhouse, Carol J., Barbara Yngvesson, & David M. Engel. 1994. Law and Community in Three American Towns. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.
Greenhouse, Carol J. 2003. Ethnography and Democracy: Texts and Contexts in the United States in the 1990s. In Sarat & Simon, eds., 2003, 191-219.
Griffiths, Anne. 2001. Gendering Culture: Towards a Plural Perspective on Kwena Women's Rights. In Cowan et al., eds., 2001, 102-26.
Griffiths, J. 1986. What is Legal Pluralism? 24 Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 1-55.
Gulliver, P. H. 1969. Dispute Settlement without Courts: The Ndendeuli of Southern Tanzania. In Nader, ed., 1969, 24-68.
Gulliver, P. H. 1971. Neighbours and Networks: The Idiom of Kinship in Social Action among the Ndendeuli of Tanzania. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gulliver, P. H. 1979. Disputes and Negotiations: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Academic Press.
Gunnier, Lani, and Gerald Torres. 2002. The Miner's Canary: Enlisting Race, Resisting Power, Transforming Democracy.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hamnett, Ian, ed. 1977. Social Anthropology and Law. New York: Academic Press.
Handler, Richard. 2003. Cultural Property and Culture Theory. Journal of Social Archaeology 3(3): 353–65.
Hann, C.M. 1993. From Production to Property: Decollectivization and the Family-Land Relationship in Contemporary Hungary. 28 Man (NS) 299-320. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 401-22.
Harris, Olivia, ed. 1996. Inside and Outside the Law: Anthropological Studies of Authority and Ambiguity. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Harrison, Lawrence E., and Samuel P. Huntington. 2000. Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. New York: Basic Books.
Harrison, S. 1991. Ritual as Intellectual Property. Man 27(2): 225–244.
Harrison, S. 1993. The Commerce of Cultures in Melanesia. Man 28: 139–158.
Harrison, S. 2002. The Politics of Resemblance: Ethnicity, Trademarks, Headhunting. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 8(2): 211–232.
Hart, K. 2005. Notes Toward an Anthropology of Money. International and Interdisciplinary Journal of Postmodern Cultural Sound, Text and Image Vol. 2, http://intertheory.org/hart.htm.
Hastrup, Kirsten, ed. 2001. Legal Culture and Human Rights: The Challenge of Diversity. The Hague: Kluwer International.
Hayden, Robert M. 1990. Social Courts in Theory and Practice: Yugoslav Workers' Courts in Comparative Perspective. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hodgson, Dorothy L. 2002. Comparative Perspectives on the Indigenous Rights Movement in Africa and the Americas. 104 American Anthropologist 1037-49.
Hodgson, Dorothy L. 2002. Precarious Alliances: The Cultural Politics and Structural Predicaments of the Indigenous Rights Movement in Tanzania. 104 American Anthropologist 1086-97.
Hoebel, E. Adamson. 1954. The Law of Primitive Man: A Study in Comparative Legal Dynamics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.
Hoebel, E. Adamson. 1969. Keresan Pueblo Law. In Nader, ed., 1969, 92-116.
Holston, James. 1991 The Misrule of Law: Land and Usurpation in Brazil. 33 Comparative Studies in Society and History 695-725. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 423-54.
Hunt, Alan. 1976. Law, State and Class Struggle. Marxism Today 178-87. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 313-22.
Jones, D. Gareth, and Robyn J. Harris. 1998. Archaeological Human Remains: Scientific, Cultural, and Ethical Considerations. 39 Current Anthropology 253-64.
Just, Peter. 1992. History, Power, Ideology, and Culture: Current Directions in the Anthropology of Law. 26 Law and Society Review 373.
Just, Peter. 2001. Dou Donggo Justice: Conflict and Morality in an Indonesian Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Kahn, Paul W. 1999. The Cultural Study of Law: Reconstructing Legal Scholarship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kahn, Paul W. 2003. Freedom, Autonomy, and the Cultural Study of Law. In Sarat & Simon, eds., 2003, 154-87.
Kalinoe, L. and J. Leach, eds. 2001. Rationales of Ownership. New Delhi: UBS Publisher's Distributors Ltd.
Kay, Herma H. 1969. The Offer of a Free Home: A Case Study in the Family Law of the Poor. In Nader, ed., 1969, 304-26.
Kirsch, S. 2001. Lost Worlds: Environmental Disaster, "Culture Loss" and the Law. Current Anthropology 42(2): 167–98.
Köbben, André J. F. 1969. Law at the Village Level: The Cottica Djuka of Surinam. In Nader, ed., 1969, 117-40.
Kramarae, Cheris, Muriel Schulz, and William O'Barr, eds. 1984. Language and Power. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Kuehn, Thomas. 1991. Law, Family and Women: Toward a Legal Anthropology of Renaissance Italy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Landa, Janet T. 1994. Trust, Ethnicity, and Identity. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Lazarus-Black, Mindie. 1994. Legitimate Acts and Illegal Encounters: Law and Society in Antigua and Barbuda. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Lazarus-Black, Mindie. 1994. Alternative Readings: The Status of Children Act in Antigua and Barbuda. 28 Law and Society Review 993-1007. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 255-70.
Lazarus-Black, Mindie, and Susan F. Hirsch, eds. 1994. Contested States: Law, Hegemony and Resistance. New York: Routledge.
Leach, J. 2003. Owning Creativity: Cultural Property and the Efficacy of Custom on the Rai Coast of Papua New Guinea. Journal of Material Culture 8(2): 123–215.
Levi, Judith, and Anne G. Walker. 1990. Language in the Judicial Process. New York: Plenum Press.
Llewellyn, Karl, and E. Adamson Hoebel. 1941. The Cheyenne Way: Conflict and Case Law in Primitive Jurisprudence. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Luhmann, Niklas. 1989. Law as a Social System. 83 Northwestern University Law Review 136-50. Reprinted in Rokumoto, ed., 1994, 355-70.
MacCormack, G. 1978. Anthropology and Legal Theory. 1978 Juridical Review 216-32. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 113-30.
MacLachlan, Campbell. 1988. The Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Law: Pluralism Beyond the Colonial Paradigm - A Review Article. 37 International and Comparative Law Quarterly, pt. 2, 368-86. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 449-68.
Maine, Sir Henry. 1861. Ancient Law. New York: Dutton (1960).
Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1926. Crime and Custom in Savage Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1942. A New Instrument for the Interpretation of Law - Especially Primitive. 51 Yale Law Journal 1237-54.
Matsuda, Mari J. 1988. Native Custom and Official Law in Hawaii. 3 Internationales Jahrbuch für Rechtsanthropologie 135-46. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 469-80.
Maurer, W. 2006. The Anthropology of Money. Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 15-36.
Mehrotra, Ajay K. 2001. Law and the "Other:" Karl L. Llewellyn, Cultural Anthropology, and the Legacy of "The Cheyenne Way." 26 Law and Social Inquiry 741-76.
Melzer, Arthur M., Jerry Weinberger, and M. Richard Zimman, editors. 1998. Multiculturalism and American Democracy. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
Merry, Sally E. 1988. Legal Pluralism, 22(5) Law and Society Review 869-96. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 131-58.
Merry, Sally E. 1990. Getting Justice and Getting Even: Legal Consciousness Among Working-Class Americans. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
Merry, Sally E. 1992. Anthropology, Law, and Transnational Processes. 21 Annual Review of Anthropology 357-79.
Merry, Sally E. 1997. Global Human Rights and Local Social Movements in a Legally Plural World. 12 Canadian Journal of Law and Society 247-71. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 321-46.
Merry, Sally E. 2000. Colonizing Hawaii: The Cultural Power of Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Merry, Sally E. 2001. Changing Rights, Changing Culture. In Cowan et al., eds., 2001, 31-55.
Merry, Sally E., ed. 2004. Law and Anthropology: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
Merry, Sally E., and Neal Milner, eds. 1993. The Possibility of Popular Justice: A Case Study of Community Mediation in the United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Mertz, Elizabeth. 1988. The Uses of History: Language, Ideology, and Law in the United States and South Africa. 22 Law and Society Review 661-85.
Mertz, Elizabeth. 1992. Language, Law, and Social Meanings: Linguistic/Anthropological Contributions to the Study of Law. 26 Law and Society Review 413-45.
Messer, Ellen. 1993. Anthropology and Human Rights. 22 Annual Review of Anthropology 221-49.
Messick, Brinkley. 1993. The Calligraphic State: Textual Domination and History in a Muslim Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Messick, Brinkley. 1998. Written Identities: Legal Subjects in the Islamic State. 38 History of Religions 25-51. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 271-98.
Mezey, Naomi. 2003. Law as Culture. In Sarat & Simon, eds., 2003, 37-72.
Montgomery, Heather. 2001. Imposing Rights? A Case Study of Child Prostitution in Thailand. In Cowan et al., eds., 2001, 80-101.
Moore, Erin. P. 1993. Gender, Power, and Legal Pluralism: Rajasthan, India. 20 American Ethnologist 522-42. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 299-320.
Moore, Sally F. 1969. Descent and Legal Position. In Nader, ed., 1969, 374-400.
Moore, Sally F. 1970. Law and Anthropology. 1969 Biennial Review of Anthropology 252-300.
Moore, Sally F. 1978. Law as Process: An Anthropological Approach. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Moore, Sally F. 1986. Social facts and Fabrications: "Customary" Law on Kilimanjaro, 1880-1980. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Moore, Sally F. 1989. History and the Redefinition of Custom in Kilimanjaro. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 277-301.
Moore, Sally F. 1992. Treating Law as Knowledge: Telling Colonial Officers What to Say to Africans about Running "Their Own" Native Courts. 26 Law and Society Review 11-46. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 659-94.
Mundy, Martha, ed. 2002. Law and Anthropology. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing.
Nader, Laura. 1965. The Anthropological Study of Law. 67(6) American Anthropologist pt. 2, 3-32. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 3-32.
Nader, Laura, ed. 1969. Law in Culture and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press [1997 paperback reprint].
Nader, Laura. 1969. Styles of Court Procedure: To Make the Balance. In Nader, ed., 1969, 69-91.
Nader, Laura. 1989. The Crown, the Colonists, and the Course of Zapotec Village Law. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 320-44.
Nader, Laura. 1990. Harmony Ideology: Justice and Control in a Zapotec Mountain Village. Palo Alto: Stanford Univ. Press.
Nader, Laura. 1997. Controlling Processes: Tracing the Dynamic Components of Power. 38 Current Anthropology 711-37. Reprinted in Mundy, ed., 2002, 159-86.
Nader, Laura. 2002. The Life of the Law: Anthropological Projects. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Nader, Laura, and Harry Todd, eds. 1978. The Disputing Process: Law in Ten Societies. New York: Columbia University Press.
Narokobi, Bernard. 1989. Law and Custom in Melanesia. 14(1) Pacific Perspectives 17-26. Reprinted in Sack and Aleck, eds., 1992, 425-34.
Nash, June. 1989. A Redistributive Model for Analyzing Government Mediation and Law in Family, Community, and Industry in a New England Industrial City. In Starr & Collier, eds., 1989, 81-112.
Newman, K. S. 1983. Law and Economic Organisation: A Comparative Study of Pre-Industrial Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Noonan, John T., Jr. 1976. Persons and Masks of the Law: Cardozo, Holmes, Jefferson, and Wythe as Makers of the Masks.Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
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II. Subject Matter JournalsThe journals listed below publish many articles of interest to this topic area. One should also use the available law review search engines, such as Lexis and Westlaw, to search for interdisciplinary studies published in law reviews and policy journals.
Law and Anthropology: International Yearbook for Legal Anthropology, The Working Group on Legal Anthropology, University of Vienna.
Law and Social Inquiry, University of Chicago Press.
Law and Society Review, Law and Society Association.
PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review, Association of Political and Legal Anthropology, a Division of the American Anthropological Association.
Yale Journal of Law and Humanities, Yale University.
III. Internet Resources
AssociationsAmerican Anthropological Association, Human Rights:
American Anthropological Association, Issues related to Minority Groups and Race:
American Anthropological Association, Public Policy Issues:
Association for Political and Legal Anthropology:
Law and Society Association:
Association for Study of Law, Culture and the Humanities:
Lawyers’ Committee for Cultural Heritage Preservation:
Law and AnthropologySocial Science Gateway -- Legal Systems and Moral Codes:
Law and Social Inquiry Journal:
Law and Society Review:
Yale Journal of Law & Humanities archives:
Siberian Studies Journal, Issue on Cultural Property:
Max Plank Institute Working Papers:
International Human Rights Resources:
Law and Economics resources:
Social Science Research Network:
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO):
UNESCO Convention on Intangible Heritage:
Who Owns Native Culture? (M. Brown)
Law and ArchaeologyCultural Heritage Laws:
Center for Heritage and Society (U. Mass.):
General Legal Studies ResourcesU.S. Supreme Court web site:
Cornell University Legal Information Institute:
U.S. Code Search:
Famous American Trials:
Proceedings of the Old Bailey, London, 1674-1834:
A Century of Lawmaking (Library of Congress, American Memory):
Yale's Avalon Project:
Basic Legal Citation:
Law Libraries gateway:
State and Local Governments:
Jurist Legal News:
CNN Legal News:
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