Grant Wood, Fall Plowing, 1931

Landscape Archaeology
Anth. 453/LA 454
Course Syllabus
Fall 2014

Prof. Christopher Fennell


dividing bar

Course Description and Objectives

Landscape archeology addresses the complex issues of the ways that people have consciously and unconsciously shaped the land around them. Human populations have engaged in a variety of processes in organizing space or altering the landscape around them for a diversity of purposes, including subsistence, economic, social, political, and religious undertakings. People often perceive, protect, and shape the land in the course of symbolic processes engaging with their sense of place, memory, history, legends, and the boundaries of realms sacred and profane. Archaeology provides invaluable tools for examining such processes, and we can provide morphological and environmental data on past landscapes that are available from no other sources.

Landscape archaeology thus involves the use of archaeological, documentary, and oral history evidence to study and interpret the ways past peoples shaped their landscapes through the deployment of cultural and social practices, and the ways, in turn, that such people were influenced, motivated, or constrained by their natural surroundings. The archaeological evidence utilized in landscape archaeology ranges across a continuum of methods including the uses of satellite and aerial imagery, ground surface surveys, topographic modeling, stratigraphic excavations, geomorphology assessments, paleoethnobotany analysis, macrofloral and microfloral studies, and ground penetrating prospection technologies. Such techniques have been utilized to study and interpret subjects as diverse as prehistoric roadways in Chaco Canyon, formal gardens of elite Anglo-American houses, spatial configurations of antebellum plantation structures and the domestic sites of enslaved laborers, and the field systems of Mesoamerican civilizations.

Blake's compass and hemisphere map

This course covers a range of topics within landscape archaeology that relate to core principles of the field of archaeology: methods of investigation, interpretation and modeling of results; archaeological ethics and cooperative project designs working with local and descendant communities concerned with the heritage of the landscapes under study; and strategies for protecting the cultural resources manifest in those landscapes. The course will also provide students with opportunities to learn fundamental archaeological skills such as surveying, sampling strategies, remote sensing, applications of GIS to archaeology, and the creation of interpretive frameworks for a public audience.

By the conclusion of this course, each student should have acquired skills in the following areas: understanding the theoretical and methodological principles utilized in conducting landscape archaeology studies and the interpretations of data produced in such projects; critical reading and assessment of particular landscape archaeology studies and the basic assumptions, theories, and methods utilized in those studies; an enhanced ability to communicate in written and oral form a research design and interpretive framework for an archaeological site; enhanced skills in locating and utilizing sources for landscape archaeology, including those available through libraries, the internet, research groups, and professional organizations.

The course is organized around reading, class presentations, and critical discussions. Responsibilities for leading discussion of the readings will be rotated among class participants. There will be occasional lectures to offer background on theoretical issues and particular methodological topics. The quality of your course experience will depend in large part on your willingness read thoughtfully and participate actively in class discussions. This course will provide you with the opportunity to hone your skills in articulating significant arguments presented within a particular range of archaeological studies. The course also provides a supportive environment in which to practice your skills at written exposition, classroom debate, and public presentations. This is, for the most part, a reading and discussion course intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with backgrounds in anthropology, archaeology, and landscape architecture. Previous course work in archaeology or landscape architecture is assumed, along with familiarity with basic archaeological and anthropological concepts.

surveyor's transit

Graduate students, who receive the equivalent of four credits or one graduate unit, will be expected to produce seminar papers of greater length and depth of analysis than undergraduate participants in this course. In addition, graduate students will be expected to meet with the instructor for an additional one to two hours of course discussion each week. For undergraduate students to enroll in this course, they should have already taken an introductory archaeology course, such as Anth. 220, or an introductory landscape architecture course, such as LA 215, and a 300 level course in socio-cultural anthropology or archaeology, or an equivalent of experiences in prior course work may be accepted as sufficient with the instructor's permission.

Locations and Instructor Background

Class meets on Mondays, from 9:00am to 11:50am, in Room 111 of David Kinley Hall. Instructor: Chris Fennell, office in 296 Davenport Hall, cell phone (312) 513-2683, email cfennell@illinois.edu; office hours on Wednesdays, 11:30am to 12:30pm, 2:00pm to 4:00pm. I specialize in historical archaeology as an Associate Professor in Anthropology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. My research projects address aspects of African-American cultural heritage and the dynamics of social group affiliations among African Americans and European Americans in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. These research efforts include the development of interpretative frameworks focusing on regional systems theories, diaspora studies, landscape analysis, theories concerning ethnic group dynamics and racialization, stylistic and symbolic analysis of material culture, and the significance of consumption patterns. I am an affiliate faculty member of the Department of Landscape Architecture, the Center for African Studies and the Department of African American Studies, offering courses addressing African diaspora subjects and issues of racialization. I am also a member of the College of Law faculty and offer interdisciplinary seminars for graduate and law students.

Required Readings

Texts

Tilley, Christopher (1997). A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg).

Additional suggested readings:

Fennell, Christopher (2011). "Carved, Inscribed, and Resurgent: Cultural and Natural Terrains as Analytic Challenges," introductory chapter in Revealing Landscapes, textbook compiled by C. Fennell, in Perspectives from Historical Archaeology series (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology) (.pdf of chapter and book on reserve at Undergraduate Library).

Rapp, George ("Rip"), Jr., and Christopher L. Hill (2d ed. 2006). Geoarchaeology: The Earth Science Approach to Archaeological Interpretation, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) (book on reserve at Undergraduate Library).

Readings on Electronic Reserve

The other readings listed below under each week's discussion topic, consisting of articles and excerpts from other texts, will be available on electronic reserve in the course web site available through the University's Compass program.

Enrolled students can access the course web page by logging onto the Compass system, which will display all existing web pages for your courses. Choose Anth. 453 or LA 454 from the display list and you can access the course syllabus, assignments, lecture notes and illustrations, and other online class resources for Landscape Archaeology. The log-on page for Compass is available at:
https://compass.illinois.edu.

Additional Resources

I have provided below, following the "Class Schedule" section of the syllabus, a bibliography of additional print sources and a list of internet resources related to the subjects of landscape archaeology. These source lists should be helpful for students in choosing topics for their seminar papers and conducting research related to the course.

stone ring and snow in Orkney

Course Assignments and Grading Policy

Your grade in this course will be based on your performance in completing the following assignments:

1. Lead Discussants (10 percent of course grade).  Seminar participants will be responsible for leading discussion on the assigned readings for selected class meetings. Such lead discussants should not simply summarize reading assignments one by one, but rather highlight significant theoretical and methodological themes that emerge in the articles, the manner in which they relate to one another and to previous topics discussed in the course, and their implications for archaeological and landscape analysis. For example, one should address questions such as: Do the authors' positions agree?  Do you find their arguments persuasive? How do they fit (or fail to fit) with other anthropological and archaeological ideas you find helpful or attractive? A key focus of your presentation should be the manner in which abstract theoretical models can actually be implemented in studying the archaeological record. If particular patterns in the landscape and archaeological record are discussed and explained in an assigned reading, can you think of other ways to account for them? Your presentations should also include a series of questions for discussion by other participants in the class. A sign-up sheet will be distributed for you to choose those weeks in which to be a lead discussant.

2. Class Discussion (10 percent of course grade). Those students who are not a lead discussant in a given week should still come to class prepared to discuss critically the week's readings. I also reserve the right to lower the course grade (by one letter grade) of any student who fails to regularly attend class during the semester.

3. Short Essay (20 percent of course grade). In the seventh week of the course, participants will complete a 5-6 page introductory essay entitled "What is Landscape Archaeology?" and present a short oral synopsis (5-10 minutes) in class. In writing the essay, you should draw on the assigned reading, class presentations, discussion, and your own insights. This is a first opportunity for you to outline your vision of just how landscape archaeology is a distinctive enterprise in the theoretical, methodological, and empirical realms. The short essay and the oral presentation based on it are due in class at the beginning of Week 7. After revision, this short paper can become the introductory section of a longer seminar paper (see below). The grade for the short essay or final seminar paper will be reduced if a student submits the completed assignment late (by one letter grade for each day it is late).

Grant Wood, Stone City, 1930

4. Seminar Paper (50 percent of course grade). During the last three weeks of the course, participants will complete drafts of their seminar paper, which should be 15-20 pages in length for undergraduates or 20-25 pages in length for graduate students. In the seminar paper, you will explore a particular aspect of landscape analysis that interests you. Your paper can have a theoretical (e.g., landscape and the "new ecology"), methodological (e.g., landscape and GIS), or substantive focus (e.g., colonial gardens or symbolic landscapes). This is your opportunity to explore in greater detail a subset of the theoretical and methodological ideas encompassed by landscape analysis. A revised version of your short essay ("What is Landscape Archaeology?") can serve as the conceptual foundation for this effort and as the introductory section of your seminar paper.  The focus of the rest of the paper is up to you, but it needs to be cleared in advance with the instructor.  An abstract or preliminary statement, with key bibliographic references, is due in class at the beginning of Week 10. The final seminar paper is due by 4:00pm on Dec. 19.

5. Seminar Paper Presentation and Discussion (10 percent of course grade). During the last two weeks of the course, each participant will present in class a 15-minute synopsis of the seminar paper.  This will be followed by 10-minute evaluation and comment by a designated discussant. Following a response by the author, the floor will be opened to general discussion.  Drafts of the seminar paper will be distributed one week before this presentation to all class members, including the designated discussant.

When preparing these assignments, be careful that you do not plagiarize the works of another; that is, do not present the work or words of another author in a verbatim manner as your own. Consult the UIUC regulations for more information on the hazards of plagiarism, at http://studentcode.illinois.edu/. Assignments handed in late will lose 10% of the possible credit after the class in which they are due, and 10% more for each subsequent day late. No make-ups are provided for missed assignments in the absence of documented and legitimate medical or family emergencies.

Class Schedule

Week 1.  Aug. 25.    Course Introduction
    Overview of course, spectrum of landscape archaeology subjects, and potential research topics.
    Readings include the following:
    Meinig, D. W. (1979). The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene, In The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays, edited by D. W. Meinig and John Brinckerhoff Jackson (New York: Oxford University Press) (on electronic reserve as 'Meinig' in Compass).
    Film: In the Light of Reverence: Protecting America's Sacred Lands (2002), exploring competing perspectives of particular landscapes for use and conservation as sacred sites, recreation, natural resources, and research subjects.

Labor Day break! Sept. 1.

Week 2.  Sept. 8.    Sites, Non-Sites, and Landscapes.
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Bender, Barbara (1998). Stonehenge, Making Space (Oxford: Berg).
        Introduction: time, place and people, pp. 1-23 (Article 1a and Article 1b in Compass).
        Thinking about landscapes, pp. 25-35 (Article 1b in Compass).
    (b) Dunnell, Robert C. (1992). The Notion Site, in Space, Time, and Archaeological Landscapes, ed. by Jacqueline Rossignol and LuAnn Wandsnider, pp. 21-41 (New York: Plenum Press) (Article 2 in Compass).
    (c) Deetz, James (1990). Landscapes as Cultural Statements, in Earth Patterns: Essays in Landscape Archaeology, ed. by William M. Kelso and Rachel Most, pp. 1-4 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia) (Article 3 in Compass).
    (d) Crumley, Carole, and William H. Marquardt (1990). Landscape: A Unifying Concept in Regional Analysis, in Interpreting Space: GIS and Archaeology, ed. by Kathleen Allen, Stanton Green, and Ezra Zubrow, pp. 73-79 (London: Taylor and Francis) (Article 4 in Compass).

Week 3.  Sept. 15.    Landscape and Historical Ecology
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Balle, William (1998). Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates, in Advances in Historical Ecology, ed. by William Balle, pp. 13-29 (New York: Columbia University Press) (Article 5 in Compass).
    (b) Whitehead, N. (1998). Ecological History and Historical Ecology: Diachronic Modeling vs. Historical Explanation, in Advances in Historical Ecology, ed. by William Balle, pp. 43-66 (New York: Columbia University Press) (Article 6 in Compass).
    (c) Ingerson, Alice E. (1994). Tracking and Testing the Nature-Culture Dichotomy, in Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes, ed. by Carole Crumley, pp. 30-41 (Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research) (Article 7 in Compass).

  Week 4.  Sept. 22.    Landscape, the New Ecology, and Environmental History
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Zimmerer, Karl S. (1994). Human Geography and the "New Ecology": The Prospect and Promise of Integration. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84(1):108-125 (Article 8 in Compass).
    (b) Lansing, J. Stephen, and James N. Kremer (1993). Emergent Properties of Balinese Water Temple Networks: Coadaptation on a Rugged Fitness Landscape, American Anthropologist 95:97-114 (Article 9a and Article 9b in Compass).
    (c) Erickson, Clark L. (1999). Neo-environmental Determinism and Agrarian "Collapse," Antiquity 73:634-42 (Article 10 in Compass).

tuplid fields in Netherlands

Week 5.  Sept. 29.    Aesthetics and Experiences of Landscape
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Johnson, Mathew (2012). Phenomenological Approaches in Landscape Archaeology. Annual Reviews of Anthropology DOI 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092611-145840 (June 29) (Johnson 2012 in Compass).
    (b) Tilley, Christopher (1994). A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg).
        Space, Place, Landscape, and Perception: Phenomenological Perspectives, pp. 7-34.
        The Social Construction of Landscapes in Small-scale Societies: Structures of Meaning, Structures of Power, pp. 35-69.
        An Affinity with the Coast: Places and Monuments in South-west Wales, pp. 76-110.

    Suggested additional readings:
    Chappell, Sally (2002). Cahokia: Mirror of the Cosmos (Chicago: University of Chicago Press). An illustrated chapter excerpt of this text is available online from the UC Press at http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/101363.html.

These footprints carved into the wooden floorboards of a Buddhist monastery in China are thought to have been made by a worshipper who prayed in the same spot for decades. Source: Reuters, via Spiegel Online, February 5, 2009

Week 6.  Oct. 6.    Aesthetics and Experiences of Landscape (cont'd)
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Tilley, Christopher (1994). A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg).
        Escarpments and Spurs: Places and Monuments in the Black Mountains, pp. 111-42.
        Ridges, Valleys and Monuments on the Chalk Downland, pp. 143-201.
        Conclusion: Ideology and Place: Restructuring the Connections, pp. 202-208.

Week 7.  Oct. 13.    Doing Landscape Archaeology: Geoarchaeology and Site Formation Processes
    Deadline: Introductory essay due today.
    Classroom presentations on subjects of introductory essay.
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Rapp, George, Jr., and Christopher L. Hill (1998). Geoarchaeology: The Earth Science Approach to Archaeological Interpretation (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) (this is a suggested reading only; copies of the book are available on reserve at the Undergraduate Library).
        Sediments and soils and creation of the archaeological record, pp. 18-49.
        Contexts of archaeological record formation, pp. 50-85.
        Paleoenvironmental reconstructions: humans, climates and ancient landscapes, pp. 86-111.

mapping tools
Trimble GPS receiver
total station


Week 8.  Oct. 20.    Doing Landscape Archaeology: Geoarchaeology and Site Formation Processes; Remote Sensing and GIS Methods
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Rapp, George, Jr., and Christopher L. Hill (1998). Geoarchaeology: The Earth Science Approach to Archaeological Interpretation (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) (this is a suggested reading only; copies of the book are available on reserve at the Undergraduate Library).
        Estimating age in the archaeological record, pp. 153-74.
        Geologic mapping, remote sensing and surveying, pp. 175-97.
    (b) Conyers, Lawrence B., Eileen G. Ernenwein, and Leigh-Ann Bedal (2002). Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a Method for Planning Excavation Strategies, Petra, Jordan. Society for American Archaeology's E-tiquity Journal, available online at http://www.du.edu/~lconyer/petra/index.html.
    (c) Trumpler, Charlotte (2003). Aerial Photography in Archaeology and Its Pioneers. In The Past From Above: Aerial Photographs of Archaeological Sites, by Georg Gerster, edited by Charlotte Trumpler, pp. 9-23 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) (Article 11 in Compass).
    (d) Hailey, Tommy Ike (2005). The Powered Parachute as an Archaeological Aerial Reconnaissance Vehicle. Archaeological Prospection 12: 69-78 (Article 12 in Compass).
    (e) Kantner, John (1997). Ancient Roads, Modern Mapping: Evaluating Chaco Anasazi Roadways using GIS Technology. Expedition 39(3): 49-62 (Article 13 in Compass).

Week 9.  Oct. 27.    Doing Landscape Archaeology: A Case Study of Chesapeake Agricultural Landscapes
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Earle, Carville (1975). The Evolution of a Tidewater Settlement System: All Hallowes Parish, Maryland, 1650-1783. University of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Paper No. 170 (Articles 14a and 14b in Compass).
        Introduction, pp. 1-4.
        Settlement systems, area, and agenda, pp. 5-13.
        Parameters of the settlement system, pp. 15-37.
    (b) Upton, Dell (1985). White and Black Landscapes in Eighteenth-century Virginia. Places 2(2): 59-72 (Article 15 in Compass).


Mending a Break in a Rice-Field Bank, from the series A Carolina Rice Plantation of the Fifties, ca. 1935, by Alice Ravenel Huger Smith (American, 1876-1958), oil on canvas

Week 10.  Nov. 3.     Gardens and Ornamental Landscapes
    Deadline: Seminar paper abstract with key bibliographic references due today.
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Leone, Mark P. (1984). Interpreting Ideology in Historical Archaeology: Using the Rules of Perspective in the William Paca Garden in Annapolis, Maryland, in Ideology, Representation and Power in Prehistory, ed. by Christopher Tilley and Daniel Miller, pp. 25-35 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) (Article 16 in Compass).
    (b) Pogue, Dennis (1996). Giant in the Earth: George Washington, Landscape Designer, in Landscape Archaeology, ed. by Rebecca Yamin and Karen B. Metheny,  pp. 52-69. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press) (Article 17a and 17b in Compass).
    (c) Kryder-Reid, Elizabeth (1994). The Archaeology of Vision in Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Gardens. Journal of Garden History 1: 42-53 (Article 18 in Compass).

Week 11.  Nov. 10.    Cultural Landscapes: Heritage, Preservation, and Multivalent Spaces
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Archibald, Robert R. (1999). Facing the Past, in A Place to Remember: Using History to Build Community, pp. 9-25 (Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press) (Article 19 in Compass).
    (b) Davis, Karen Lee (1997). Sites without Sights: Interpreting Closed Excavations, in Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths, ed. by John Jameson, Jr., pp. 84-98 (Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press) (Article 20 in Compass).
    (c) Derry, Linda (2000). Southern Town Plans, Story Telling, and Historical Archaeology, in Archaeology of Southern Urban Landscapes, ed. by Amy L. Young, pp. 14-29 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press) (Article 21 in Compass).

Week 12.  Nov. 17.    Cultural Landscapes (cont'd) / Seminar Paper Presentations and Workshop
    Readings include the following:
    (a) Lavine, Steven D. (1992). Audience, Ownership, and Authority: Designing Relations between Museums and Communities, in Museums and Communities: The Politics of Public Culture, ed. by Ivan Karp, Christine Mullen Kreamer, and Steven D. Lavine, 137-57 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press) (Article 22 in Compass).
    (b) Mullins, Paul R. (2004). African-American Heritage in a Multicultural Community: An Archaeology of Race, Culture and Consumption, in Places in Mind: Public Archaeology as Applied Anthropology, ed. by Paul A Shackel and Erve J. Chambers, pp. 57-70 (London: Routledge) (Article 23 in Compass).
    (c) Horning, Audrey (2001). Of Saints and Sinners: Mythic Landscapes of the Old and New South, in Myth, Memory, and the Making of the American Landscape, ed. by Paul A. Shackel, pp. 21-46. (Gainesville: University Press of Florida) (Article 24 in Compass).

    Start of classroom presentations and discussion of seminar papers.

Thanksgiving Break! Classes do not meet Nov. 24-28.

John W. O'Brien, Old Man Grey, 1852, Oil on canvas, Illinois State Museum Collection

Week 13.  Dec. 1.    Seminar Paper Presentations and Workshop
    Classroom presentations and discussion of seminar papers.

Week 14.  Dec. 8.    Seminar Paper Presentations and Workshop
    Classroom presentations and discussion of seminar papers.
    Deadline: Final seminar papers are due by 4:00pm on Dec. 19.




Bibliography of Additional Sources related to Landscape Archaeology


stacks

Aalen, F. H., K. Whelan, and M. Stout, eds. (1997). Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape (Toronto: University of Toronto Press).

Aberg, A., and C. Lewis, eds. (2000). The Rising Tide: Archaeology and Coastal Landscapes (Oxford: Oxbow).

Adams, R. McC. (1981). Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement Systems and Land Use of the Central Floodplains of the Euphrates (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Adams, W. H. (1990). Landscape Archaeology, Landscape History, and the American Farmstead. Historical Archaeology 24(4): 92-101, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 12-21 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Agha, A. (2008). Place, Place-making, and African-American Archaeology: Considerations for Future Work. South Carolina Antiquities 38(1&2): 53-66.

Ainsworth, S., D. Field, and P. Pattison, eds. (1999). Patterns of the Past: Essays in Landscape Archaeology for Christopher Taylor (Oxford: Oxbow Books).

Aitchison, C., N. E. MacLeod, and S. J. Shaw (2000). Leisure and Tourism Landscapes: Social and Cultural Geographies (London: Routledge).

Analen, A. N., and R. Melnick, eds. (2000). Preserving Cultural Landscapes in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).

Appleton, J. (1980). Landscape in the Arts and Sciences (Hull, UK: University of Hull).

Appleton, J. (1996). The Experience of Landscape (New York: Wiley).

Appleton, J., ed. (1980). The Aesthetics of Landscape: Proceedings of a Symposium held in the University of Hull (Oxford : Rural Planning Services).

Archibald, R. R. (1999). Facing the Past, in A Place to Remember: Using History to Build Community, pp. 9-25 (Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press).

Ashmore, W., and A. B. Knapp, eds. (1999). Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives (Malden, MA: Blackwell).

Aston, M. (1983). The Making of the English Landscape: The Next 25 Years. Local Historian 15(6):323-332.

Aston, M. (1985). Interpreting the Landscape: Landscape Archaeology in Local Studies (London: Batsford).

Aston, M. (2002). Interpreting the Landscape from the Air (Stroud: Tempus).

Aston, Michael and Trevor Rowley (1974). Landscape Archaeology: an Introduction to Fieldwork Techniques on Post-Roman Landscapes (Newton Abbot, England: David & Charles).

Auge, M. (1995). Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity (London: Verso).

Hani Rice Terraces

Aveni, Anthony F., and Helaine Silverman (1991). Between the Lines: Reading the Nazca Markings as Rituals Writ Large. The Sciences July/August.

Baker, Alan R., and Gideon Biger, eds. (1992). Ideology and Landscape in Historic Perspective: Essays on the Meanings of Some Places in the Past (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).

Baldwin, A. Dwight, Jr., et al., eds. (1993). Beyond Preservation: Restoring and Inventing Landscapes (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press).

Balée, W., ed. (1998). Advances in Historical Ecology (New York: Columbia University Press).

Banning, E. B. (2002). Archaeological Survey (New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum).

Barker, K., and T. Darvill, eds. (1997). Making English Landscapes: Changing Perspectives (Oxford: Oxbow Books).

Barnes, T. J., and J. S. Duncan, eds. (1992). Writing Worlds: Discourse, Text and Metaphor in the Representation of Landscape (London: Routledge).

Basso, Keith (1996). Wisdom Sits in Paces: Notes on a Western Apache Landscape, in Senses of Place, ed. by Steven Feld and Keith H. Basso, pp.53-90 (Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press).

Baugher, Sherene (2001). Visible Charity: The Archaeology, Material Culture, and Landscape Design of New York City's Municipal Almshouse Complex, 1736-1797. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 5(2): 175-202.

Beaudry, Mary C. (1986). The Archaeology of Historical Land Use in Massachusetts. Historical Archaeology 20(2):38-46.

Beaudry, Mary C. (1999). The Archaeology of Domestic Life in Early America, in Old and New Worlds, ed. by Geoff Egan and Ronald L. Michael, pp.117-26 (Oxford: Oxbow).

Bender, Barbara (1992). Theorizing Landscape and the Prehistoric Landscapes of Stonehenge. Man 27: 735­-55.

Bender, Barbara (1998). Stonehenge: Making Space (Oxford: Berg).

Bender, Barbara, ed. (1993). Landscape: Politics and Perspectives (London: Berg).

Bender, Barbara, Sue Hamilton and Christopher Tilley (2007). Stone Worlds: Narrative and Reflexivity in Landscape Archaeology (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press).

Bender, Barbara, and Margot Winer, eds. (2001). Contested Landscapes: Movement, Exile, and Place (Oxford: Berg).

Beresford, M. W. (1948). Ridge and Furrow and the Open Field. Economic History Review 2nd series, 1:34-45.

Beresford, M. W. (1956) The Lost Villages of England (London: Lutterworth).

Beresford, M. W., and J. K. St. Joseph (1978). Medieval England: An Aerial Survey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Birnbaum, Charles, and Christine C. Peters (1996). The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes (Washington DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service).

Blaikie, P. M., and H. C. Brookfield, eds. (1987). Land Degradation and Society (London: Methuen).

Blades, B. S. (2003). European Military Sites as Ideological Landscapes. Historical Archaeology 37(3): 46-54, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 318-26 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Boivin, N., and M. A. Owoc, eds. (2004). Soils, Stones and Symbols: Cultural Perceptions of the Mineral World (London: UCL Ptess).

microlandscape
microlandscape
microlandscape

Bond, J. (2000). Landscapes of Monasticism. In Landscape: The Richest Historical Record. SLS Supplementary Series 1. D. Hooke, ed., pp. 63-72 (Amesbury: Society fot Landscape Studies).

Borchert, James (1986). Alley Landscapes of Washington, in Common Places: Readings in American Vernacular Architecture, ed. by Dell Upton and John M. Vlach, pp. 281-91 (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press).

Bowden, M. (2001). Mapping the Past: OGS Crawford and the Development of Landscape Studies. Landscapes 2:29-45.

Bowden, M., ed. (1999). Unraveling the Landscape: An Inquisitive Approach to Archaeology (Stroud: Tempus).

Bradley, R. (1998a). The Significance of Monuments: On the Shaping of Human Experience in Neolithic and Bronze Age Europe (London: Routledge).

Bradley, R. (1998b). Rock Art and the Prehistory of Atlantic Europe: Signing the Land (London: Routledge).

Bradley, R. (2000). Mental and Material Landscapes in Prehistoric Britain. In Landscape: The Richest Historical Record. SLS Supplementary Series 1. D. Hooke, ed., pp. 1-11 (Amesbury: Society for Landscape Studies).

Brandon, J. C., and J. M. Davidson (2005). The Landscape of Van Winkle's Mill: Identity, Myth, and Modernity in the Ozark Upland South. Historical Archaeology 39(3): 113-31, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 378-96 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Bruno, David, and Julian Thomas, eds. (2008). Handbook of Landscape Archaeology (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press).

Carson, Cary, Norman F. Barka, William M. Kelson, Garry Wheeler Stone, and Dell Upton (1988). Impermanent Architecture in the Southern American Colonies, in Material Life in America, 1600-1860, edited by Robert Blair St. George, pp. 113-158 (Boston: Northeastern University Press).

Carson, Rachel (1962). Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin).

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Mitchell, W. J., ed. (1994). Landscape and Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).

Morley, D. (2000). Home Territories: Media, Mobility and Identity (London: Routledge).

Morris, R. (1989). Churches in the Landscape (London: Dent).

Muir, R. (1998). Approaches to Landscape (London: Macmillan).

Muir, R. (2000). The New Reading the Landscape: Fieldwork in Landscape History (Exeter: University of Exeter Press).

Mullins, Paul R. (2004). African-American Heritage in a Multicultural Community: An Archaeology of Race, Culture and Consumption, in Places in Mind: Public Archaeology as Applied Anthropology, ed. by Paul A Shackel and Erve J. Chambers, pp. 57-70 (London: Routledge).

Nash, George (2011). Replicating Cultural Landscapes: Interpreting Rock-Art in the Valcamonica, Lombardy, Italy. Landscapes 12(2): 1-19.

Nash, George, and George Children (2000). Walking with Landscape Syntax and Narrative: The Experiential of the Buena Vista Rock Art Site, French Glen, Oregon, in Signifying Place and Space: World Perspectives of Rock Art and Landscape, ed. by George Nash, pp.163-71 (BAR International Series 902; Oxford: Archaeopress).

National Park Service (1994). Management of Cultural Landscapes (Chapter 7), in Cultural Resource Management Guidelines, pp. 93-117 (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service).

National Park Service (1996). Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes. (Washington, D.C.: National Park Service).

Neumann, Thomas W., and Robert M. Stanford (2001). Cultural Resource Archaeology (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).

Noble, Allen G., ed. (1992). To Build in a New Land: Ethnic Landscapes in North America. Creating the North American Landscape (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).

Noble, Allen G., and M. Margaret Geib (1984). Wood, Brick, and Stone: The North American Settlement Landscape (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press).

O'Brien, C., and H. Wheeler (1978). Discovery Learning in Landscape Archaeology. Adult Education 51:352-357.

Orser, C. E., Jr. (2006). Symbolic Violence and Landscape Pedagogy: An Illustration from the Irish Countryside. Historical Archaeology 40(2): 28-44, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 344-60 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Pauketat, Timothy (2004). Ancient Cahokia and the Mississippians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Pauketat, Timothy, and Thomas Emerson, eds. (1997). Cahokia: Domination and Ideology in the Mississippian World (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press).

Penning-Rowsell, E.C. and David Lowenthal, eds. (1986). Landscape Meanings and Values. London: Allen and Unwin.

Philo, c., ed. (1991). New Words, New Worlds: Reconceptualising Social and Cultural Geography (Lampeter: St. David's University College).

Plumwood, V. (1993). Feminism and the Mastery of Nature (London: Routledge).

Pollard, J., and A. Reynolds (2002). Avebury: The Biography of a Landscape (Stroud: Tempus).

Poneous, J. D. (1990). Landscapes of the Mind: Worlds of Sense and Metaphor (Toronto: University of Toronto Press).

Prown, Jules D. (1992). Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press and Yale University Art Gallery).

Purser, M., and N. Shaver (2008). Plats and Place: The Transformation of 19th Century Speculation Townsites on the Sacramento River. Historical Archaeology 42(1): 26-46, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 204-24 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Rackham, O. (1990). Trees and Woodland in the British Landscape (London: Dent).

Rapoport, Amos (1990). The Meaning of the Built Environment: A Nonverbal Communication Approach (Tucson: University of Arizona Press).

Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness (London: Pion).

Reps, John W. (1980). Town Planning in Frontier America (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press).

Reynolds, A. (1999). Anglo-Saxon Law in the Landscape: An Archaeological Study of the Old English Judicial System (London: University of London).

Richmond, Jennifer R., and Marion P. Forsyth (2003). Legal Perspectives on Cultural Resources (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).

Riley, H., and R. Wilson-North (1999). From Pillow Mounds to Parterres: A Revelation at Cerne Abbas. In Patterns of the Past: Essays in Landscape Archaeology for Christopher Taylor. S. Ainsworth, D. Field, and P. Pattison, eds., pp. 71-76 (Oxford: Oxbow Books).

Riley, D. N. (1987). How Sites Show, in Aerial Photography in Archaeology, pp. 17-40 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press).

Rodaway, Paul (1994). Sensuous Geographies: Body, Sense, and Place (London: Routledge).

Rodman, Margaret (1992). Empowering Place: Multilocality and Multivocality. American Anthropologist 94: 640-56.

Rose, G. (1993). Feminism and Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Rossignol, Jaqueline, and LuAnn Wandsnider, eds. (1992). Space, Time and Archaeological Landscapes (New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum).

Rotman, D. L., and M. S. Nassaney (1997). Class, Gender, and the Built Environment: Deriving Social Relations from Cultural Landscapes in Southwest Michigan. Historical Archaeology 31(2): 42-62, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 157-77 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Roymans, Nico (1995). The Cultural Biography of Urnfields and the Long-term History of a Mythical Landscape (with comments and reply). Archaeological Dialogues 2: 2-38.

Rubertone, Patricia E. (2008). Memorializing the Narragansett: Place-Making and Memory-Keeping in the Aftermath of Detribalization. In Archaeologies of Placemaking: Monuments, Memories, and Engagement in Native North America, edited by Patricia E. Rubertone (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press).

Rubertone, Patricia E. (ed.) (2008). Archaeologies of Placemaking: Monuments, Memories, and Engagement in Native North America (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press).

Ryden, Kent C. (1993). Mapping the Invisible Landscape: Folklore, Writing, and the Sense of Place (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press).

Sanz, Ines Domingo, and Danae Fiore (eds.) (2008). Archaeologies of Art: Time, Place, and Identity (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press).

Sauer, Carl O. (1952). Agricultural Origins and Dispersals, Bowman Memorial Lectures, Series 2 (New York: American Geographical Society).

Sauer, Carl O. (1956). Time and Place in Ancient America. Landscape 6(2): 8-13.

Sauer, C. O. (1963). Land and Life: A Selection from the Writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Sauer, Carl O. (1968). The Morphology of Landscape. University of California Publications in Geography ; v. 2, no. 2 (New York: Johnson Reprint Corp.).

Sauer, Carl O., and John Barger Leighly (1963). Land and Life: A Selection from the Writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Schama, Simon (1995). Landscape and Memory (New York: Random House).

Schein, Richard H., ed. (2006). Landscape and Race in the United States (New York: Routledge).

Schiffer, Michael B. (1987). Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press).

Schlereth, Thomas J. (1997). Reading the Road: U.S. 40 and the American Landscape. Revised ed. (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press).

Schoenwetter, J., and J. W. Hohmann (1997). Landuse Reconstruction at the Founding Settlement of Las Vegas, Nevada. Historical Archaeology 31(4): 41-58, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 49-66 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Shackel, P. A. (2004). Labors Heritage: Remembering the American Industrial Landscape. Historical Archaeology 38(4): 44-58, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 178-92 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Shackel, P. A., ed. (2001). Myth, Memory, and the Making of the American Landscape (Gainesville: University Press of Florida).

Shackel, P. A., and E. J. Chambers, eds. (2004). Places in Mind: Public Archaeology as Applied Anthropology (London: Routledge).

Shepheard, P. (1997). The Cultivated Wilderness: Or, What Is Landscape? (Cambridge: MIT Press).

Silko, Leslie M. (1986). Landscape, History, and the Pueblo Imagination. Antaeus 57 (Autumn): 882-94.

Silverman, Helaine, and David M. Browne (1991). New Evidence for the Date of the Nazca Lines. Antiquity 65(247): 208-20.

Silverman, Helaine, and William H. Isbell, eds. (2002). Andean Archaeology II: Art, Landscape, and Society (New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum).

Silverman, Helaine, and David B. Small, eds. (2002). The Space and Place of Death, Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, Number 11.

Smith, A. (2003). Landscape Representation: Place and Identity in 19th-Century Ordnance Survey Maps of Ireland. In Landscape, Memory and History: Anthropological Perspectives. P. J. Stewart and A. Strathem, eds., pp. 71-88 (London: Pluto).

Smith, A. (2007). Mapped Landscapes: The Politics of Metaphor, Knowledge, and Representation on Nineteenth-Century Irish Ordnance Survey Maps. Historical Archaeology 44(1): 81-91, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 88-98 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Smith, Carol A., ed. (1976). Regional Analysis I, Economic Systems (New York: Academic Press).

Smith, S. D., C. O. Clement, and S. R. Wise (2003). GPS, GIS and the Civil War Battlefield Landscape: A South Carolina Low Country Example. Historical Archaeology 37(3): 14-30, reprinted in Revealing Landscapes. C. C. Fennell, comp., pp. 99-115 (Tucson, AZ: Society for Historical Archaeology, 2011).

Snead, J. E. (2002). Ancestral Pueblo Trails and the Cultural Landscape of the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. Antiquity 76:756-765.

Sofaer, Anna (1997). The Primary Architecture of the Chacoan Culture: A Cosmological Expression, in Anasazi Architecture and American Design, ed. by Baker H. Morrow and V. B. Price, pp. 88-132 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press).

Sofaer, Anna, Michael Marshall, and Rolf Sinclair (1989). The Great North Road: A Cosmographic Expression of the Chaco Culture of New Mexico, in World Archaeoastronomy, ed. by Anthony Aveni, pp. 365-76 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Soffer, Olga, A. Vasil'ev, and J. Kozlowski, eds. (2003). Perceived Landscapes and Built Environments: The Cultural Geography of Late Paleolithic Eurasia (Oxford: B.A.R., International Series).

Soja, Edward W. (1989). Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory (London and New York: Verso).

Soja, Edward W. (1996). Thirdspace : Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell).

Stafford, C. R. (1995). Geoarchaeological Perspectives on Paleolandscapes and Regional Subsurface Archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 2: 69-104.

Stapp, Darby C., and Michael S. Burney (2002). Tribal Cultural Resource Management (Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press).

Stein, Julie K. (1992). Organic Matter in Archaeological Contexts, in Soils in Archaeology: Landscape Evolution and Human Occupation, ed. by Vance T. Holliday, pp. 193-216 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press).

Stewart, Pamela J., and Andrew Strathern, eds. (2003). Landscape, Memory and History: Anthropological Perspectives (London: Pluto Press).

Stilgoe, John R. (1982). Common Landscape of America, 1580 to 1845. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Stine, Linda F., Martha Zierden, Lesley M. Drucker, and Christopher Judge, eds. (1997). Carolina Historical Landscapes: Archaeological Perspectives (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press).

Stoddart, S., ed. (2000). Landscapes from Antiquity (Cambridge: Antiquity Publications).

Stokes, Samuel N., and A. Elizabeth (1989). Saving America's Countryside: A Guide to Rural Conservation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).

Stone, Peter. 2008. Stonehenge -- A Final Solution? in The Heritage Reader, ed. by Graham Fairclough et al., pp. 524-35 (London: Routledge).

Stopford, J., ed. (1999). Pilgrimage Explored (Woodbridge: Boydell).

Sullivan, Alan P. (1998). Surface Archaeology (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press).

Taylor, J. (1994). A Dream of England: Landscape, Photography and the Tourist's Imagination (Manchester: Manchester University Press).

Theodratus, Dorothea J., and Frank LaPena (1994). Wintu Sacred Geography of Northern California, in Sacred Sites, Sacred Places, ed. by David L. Carmichael et al., pp. 20-31 (London: Routledge).

Thirsk, J., ed. (2000). The English Rural Landscape (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Thomas, Julian (1996). Time, Culture and Identity (London: Routledge).

Thompson, Robert Farris (1998). Bighearted Power: Kongo Presence in the Landscape and Art of Black America, in Keep Your Head to the Sky: Interpreting African American Home Ground, Grey Gundaker, ed., pp. 37-64 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia).

Thurston, Tina (1999). The Knowable, the Doable and the Undiscussed: Tradition, Submission and the "Becoming" of Rural Landscapes in Denmark's Iron Age. Antiquity 73(281) (Sept. 1999).

Tilley, Christopher (1994). A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments (Oxford: Berg).

Tolia-Kelly, D. P. (2004). Landscape, Race and Memory: Biographical Mapping of the Routes of British Asian Landscape Values. Landscape Research 29:277-292.

Trombold, C. D., ed. (1991). Ancient Road Networks and Settlement Hierarchies in the New World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Tuan, Yi-Fu (1964). Mountains, Ruins and the Sentiment of Melancholy. Landscape 1964 (Autumn): 27-30.

Tuan, Yi-Fu (1974). Topophilia. A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall).

Tuan, Yi-Fu (1977). Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press).

Tuan, Yi-Fu (1979a). Thought and Landscape. The Eye and the Mind's Eye, in The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays, D.W.Meinig, ed., pp. 89-102 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Tuan, Yi-Fu (1979b). Landscapes of Fear (Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press).

Turner, J. (1979). The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 (Oxford: Blackwell).

Ucko, Peter, J., and Robert Layton, eds. (1999). The Archaeology and Anthropology of Landscape: Shaping Your Landscape (London: Routledge).

Upton, Dell (1988). New Views of the Virginia Landscape. The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 96(4): 403-70.

Upton, Dell (1988). White and Black Landscapes in Eighteenth Century Virginia, in Material Life in America, 1600-1860, edited by Robert Blair St. George (Boston: Northeastern University Press).

Upton, Dell (1991). Architectural History or Landscape History? Journal of Architectural Education August (1991): 195-99.

Upton, Dell (1992). The City as Material Culture, in The Art and Mystery of Historical Archaeology, edited by Mary Beaudry and Anne E. Yentsch (Boca Raton and Ann Arbor: CRC Press).

Urton, Gary (1990). Andean Social Organization and the Maintenance of the Nazca Lines, in The Lines of Nazca, ed. by Anthony Aveni, pp. 175-206 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society).

Vlach, John M. (1993). Back of the Big House: The Architecture of Plantation Slavery (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press).

Wagstaff, J. M., ed. (1987). Landscape and Culture: Geographical and Archaeological Perspectives (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).

Warnke, M. (1994). Political Landscape: The Art History of Nature (London: Reaktion).

Watts, May T. (1975). Reading the Landscape of America (New York: Macmillan).

Welch, John R. (2008). Multiple Places, Histories, and Memories at a Frontier Icon in Apache Country. In Archaeologies of Placemaking: Monuments, Memories, and Engagement in Native North America, edited by Patricia E. Rubertone (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press).

Westcott, Konnie L., and R. Joe Brandon (2000). Practical Applications of GIS for Archaeologists: A Predictive Modeling Kit (London: Taylor & Francis).

Westmacott, Richard N. (1992). African-American Gardens and Yards in the Rural South (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press).

Westmacott, Richard N. (1993). The Gardens of African-Americans in the Rural South, in The Vernacular Garden, ed. by John Dixon Hunt and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn, pp. 77-105 (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks).

White, R. (1997). The Yorkshire Dales: Landscapes through Time (London: Batsford).

White Deer, Gary (1997). Return of the Sacred: Spirituality and the Scientific Imperative, in Native Americans and Archaeologists: Stepping Stones to Common Ground, ed. by Nina Swidler, et al., pp. 37-43 (Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press).

Whyte, N. (2003a). The Deviant Dead in the Norfolk Landscape. Landscape History 4(1):24-39.

Whyte, N. (2003b). The After-Life of Barrows: Prehistoric Monuments in the Norfolk Landscape. Landscapes 25:5-15.

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Williamson, T. (2000). Understanding Enclosure. Landscapes 1:56-79.

Williamson, T. (2002). The Transformation of Rural England: Farming and the Landscape, 1700-1870 (Exeter: Exeter University Press).

Williamson, T. (2003). Shaping Medieval Landscapes: Settlement, Society, Environment (London: Windgather Press).

Williamson, T., and E. Bellamy (1983). Ley Lines in Question (Kingswood: World's Work).

Williamson, T., and E. Bellamy (1987). Property and Landscape: A Social History of the English Countryside (London: Allen).

Winer, M. (2001). Landscapes, Fear and Land Loss on the 19th-Century South Africanan Colonial Frontier. In Contested Landscapes: Movement, Exile and Place. B. Bender and M. Winer, eds., pp. 257-272 (Oxford: Berg).

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Young, Amy L., ed. (2000). Archaeology of Southern Urban Landscapes (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabam Press).

Zierden, Martha, Linda F. Stine, Lesley M. Drucker, and Christopher Judge, eds. (1997). Carolina's Historical Landscapes: Archaeological Perspectives (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press).

Zimmerer, K., and K. R. Young (1998). Introduction: The Geographical Nature of Landscape Change, in Nature’s Geography: New Lessons for Conservation in Developing Countries, ed. by K. Zimmerer and K. R. Young, pp. 3-­35 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press).




Internet Resources related to Landscape Archaeology Subjects


Aerial Archaeology in Baden-Württemberg, Germany:
http://home.bawue.de/~wmwerner/english/braasch.html

Aerial Archaeology in Northern France:
http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/aerien/en/index.html

Aerial Archaeology Research Group:
http://www.univie.ac.at/aarg/php/cms/

American Geological Institute:
http://www.agiweb.org

American Geological Institute, Geotimes Magazine:
http://www.geotimes.org/current/

American Memory Project, Map Collections:
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/browse/

American Society for Environmental History:
http://www.aseh.net/

Association for Environmental Archaeology:
http://www.envarch.net/

Atlantic Cities: Place Matters:
http://www.theatlanticcities.com/

Atlas of Urban Expansion (Lincoln Inst. Land Policy):
http://www.lincolninst.edu/subcenters/atlas-urban-expansion/

Biomapping Projects by Christian Nold:
http://biomapping.net/

Building Blog and Landscape Futures by Geoff Manaugh:
http://bldgblog.blogspot.com/

Cadastral Surveying:
http://www.cadastral.com/

Carrlands Landscape Presentation Project:
http://www.carrlands.org.uk/

Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies (U. Arkansas):
http://www.cast.uark.edu/

Center for Land Use Interpretation:
http://www.clui.org/lotl/index.html

Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis (Rutgers U.):
http://www.crssa.rutgers.edu/

Center for Urban History (U. Leicester):
http://www.le.ac.uk/urbanhist/

Center for World Environmental History (U. Sussex):
http://www.sussex.ac.uk/cweh/

Change and Creation: Historic Landscapes, 1950-2000:
http://www.changeandcreation.org

Conflict in Cities and the Contested State:
http://www.conflictincities.org/index.html

Cultural Landscape Foundation:
http://www.tclf.org/

Cultural Landscapes Bibliography (U. Maryland):
http://www.amst.umd.edu/Research/cultland/index.html

Dendrochronology Research (H. Grissino-Mayer):
http://web.utk.edu/~grissino/

Early 19th Century Perceptions of Landscape (Illinois State Museum):
http://www.museum.state.il.us/

Earth as Art (U.S.G.S.):
http://eros.usgs.gov/imagegallery/

Earth Now Landsat Images (U.S.G.S.):
http://earthnow.usgs.gov/earthnow_app.html

Geoarchaeology and GIS (U. Calgary):
http://www.ucalgary.ca/~amwhit/home.htm

Geomorphology Key Concepts (U. Vermont):
http://www.uvm.edu/~geomorph/textbook/

Geophysics in Illinois (CERL):
http://virtual.parkland.edu/ias/publications/geophysics/geophysics.html

Geophysics at New Philadelphia, Illinois (CERL):
http://www.anthro.uiuc.edu/faculty/cfennell/NP/geophysics.html

Geospatial Revolution (Penn State U.):
http://geospatialrevolution.psu.edu/

GIS Development Articles:
http://www.gisdevelopment.net/

Ground Penetrating Radar in Archaeology (U. Denver):
http://www.du.edu/~lconyer/

Historic Preservation Practice Network Newsletter:
http://host.asla.org/groups/hppigroup/HP_Newsletter.pdf

Historical Archaeology Course and Bibliography (U. Illinois):
http://www.anthro.uiuc.edu/faculty/cfennell/syllabus/anth106/HAsyllabus.htm

Historical Geography Research Group:
http://www.ex.ac.uk/cornwall/academic_departments/geography/HGRG/

Historical Landscapes of New Philadelphia (U. Illinois):
http://www.anthro.uiuc.edu/faculty/cfennell/NP/

History of Territory and State Boundaries in U.S.:
http://www.vcdh.virginia.edu/HIUS323/maps.htm

Index of Historical Map Web Sites (U. Texas):
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/Libs/PCL/Map_collection/map_sites/hist_sites.html

Indigenous Use Map Surveys (EcoTrust Canada):
http://ecotrust.ca/

Insignificance or Microtopographies of Meaning:
http://www.insignificant-topographies.net

Institute for Computational Earth System Science (U. California):
http://www.crseo.ucsb.edu/

Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (U.N.C.):
http://iam.classics.unc.edu/

Intute Directory of Landscape Archaeology links:
http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/cgi-bin/browse.pl?id=200298

Kuriositas Landscape Photo Essays (Kuriostas.com):
Landsat V Satellite Images (3 band) (NASA):
https://zulu.ssc.nasa.gov/mrsid/

Landscape and Environment (U. Nottingham):
http://www.landscape.ac.uk/

Landscape Change in Vermont History (U. Vermont):
http://www.uvm.edu/landscape/

Landscape Research Center of East Yorkshire:
http://www.landscaperesearchcentre.org/

Landscape Research Group:
http://www.landscaperesearch.org/

Landscapes Unlocked (BBC):
http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/landscapes/

NASA's Remote Sensing Imagery:
http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/archeology/

NASA's Space Radar Images of Earth:
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/radar/sircxsar/

NASA's Visible Earth:
http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/

National Museum of Surveying:
http://www.surveyhistory.org/

National Park Service's Historic Landscapes Initiatives:
http://www.nps.gov/history/HPS/hli/

National Preservation Institute:
http://www.npi.org/

National Register of Historic Places:
http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/

National Trust for Historic Preservation:
http://www.preservationnation.org/

North America Database of Archaeological Geophysics (U. Arkansas):
http://www.cast.uark.edu/nadag

Nova's Remote Sensing Imagery:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ubar/tools/

NRCS Soil Surveys:
http://www.soils.usda.gov/survey/geography/ssurgo/

Old Compass & Bearing Equivalents:
http://www.rootsweb.com/~vavfar/compass.html

Philadelphia Cityscape & Stories (Pa. Hist. Soc'y):
http://www.philaplace.org/

Place and Space Bibliography and Links (B. Janz):
http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~janzb/place/landscape.htm

Rates of Travel Across the U.S. in the 1800s (M. Richard):
http://www.mnn.com/green-tech/transportation/stories/

Rumsey Cartography Collections:
http://www.davidrumsey.com/collections/cartography.html

Sacred Lands Film Project:
http://www.sacredland.org/

Satellite Images from Commercial Services:
http://www.digitalglobe.com/ (DigitalGlobe)
http://www.geoeye.com/ (GeoEye)
http://www.spot.com/ (Spot Image)

Satellite Remote Sensing Uncovers Peru Site (Discovery.com):
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/10/03/peru-cahuachi.html

Scotland's Changing Landscapes (BBC):
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-12019593

Sensory Memory Mapping as Neurological Process (Atlantic Cities):
http://www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2013/05/

Skyscapes Video by Goldpaint Photography:
http://goldpaintphotography.com/2012/07/18/within-two-worlds/

Soil Analysis Support System for Archaeology:
http://www.sassa.org.uk/

Soundscapes Project:
http://www.soundwalk.com/blog/category/editions/

South Yorkshire Historic Environment Characterisation:
http://sytimescapes.org.uk/

Stonehenge Investigations, 2008 (Smithsonian Mag.):
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/light-on-stonehenge.html

Stonehenge Landscape Survey with LIDAR (T. Goskar):
http://www.pastthinking.com/blog/2007/11/16/a-virtual-stonehenge-landscape/

Surveyors of Virginia (Library of Virginia):
http://www.lva.virginia.gov/whoweare/exhibits/fry-jefferson/

The Past in the Landscape (C. Holtorf):
https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/citd/holtorf/6.2.html

Three Views of a Mining Landscape Over Time:
http://www.thirdview.org/3v/photolib/NVVC02/index.html

Three Views of Western Landscapes Over Time:
http://www.thirdview.org/3v/rephotos/index.html

Uncovering Jamestowne (American Surveyor):
http://www.theamericansurveyor.com

UNESCO Cultural Heritage Preservation:
http://portal.unesco.org/culture/

UrbDeZine (on Urban Planning, Architectures, Preservation):
http://urbdezine.com/

U.S. Geological Survey:
http://www.usgs.gov/

U.S. Historical Declinations:
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/declination.shtml

Walking in Place:
http://walkinginplace.org/

World Heritage Sites Panoramas:
http://www.world-heritage-tour.org/

dividing bar

Faculty Archaeology Anthropology University

Last updated: August 22, 2014