seventeenth century house reconstruction

Historical Archaeology
of the Americas

Anth 106 / Afro 106
Course Syllabus
Fall 2015

Prof. Christopher Fennell

dividing bar

Course Description and Objectives

This course explores recent theoretical, methodological, and thematic developments in historical archaeology in North America and the Caribbean. The course subjects concern the time period of 1400 AD through 1900 AD. We will examine how historical archaeologists use artifactual, documentary, and oral history evidence in interpreting the past, and how historical archaeology can contribute to our understanding of the ways by which material culture can be used to study race, class, gender, and ethnic identities.

We consider questions such as: How can we analyze the material remains of past culture groups to account for the varied ways in which human societies organized themselves? What cultural, social, political, and ecological processes contributed to continuity or change in past social forms and material culture? How do we recognize and study the past dynamics of ethnicity, class, gender, and racialization in archaeological remains? This course will similarly explore the role that historical archaeology can play in making visible those people poorly represented in the documentary record of the past, such as enslaved African Americans and Native Americans, and it will help us to appreciate their significant roles in shaping the history of the New World.

For example, the role of African Americans in building our nation's history is a central part of historical archaeology studies of this time period and region. This course will engage students in examining the ways in which African Americans dealt with and persevered against past racializing ideologies, and the lessons to be learned from such studies of past racism, including possible ways of combating racism in the present and future.

Rendering of a Kongo Chieftain's grave, from E. J. Glave, Century Magazine, Vol. 41, p. 827 (1891), in J. M. Vlach, By The Work of Their Hands: Studies in Afro-American Folklife, p. 44, 1991

Locations and Instructor Background

Class meets on Tuesdays and Thursdays, from 11:00am to 12:20pm, in Room 1000 of Lincoln Hall. Instructor: Chris Fennell, office in 296 Davenport Hall, cell phone (312) 513-2683, email cfennell@illinois.edu; office hours on Tuesday and Thursday, 1:30-3:00pm. Edward Fanthome (fanthom2@illinois.edu) serves as Teaching Assistant. His office hours are Monday, 4:00-5:00pm, Tuesday, 1:00-2:00pm, and Wednesday, 12:00-1:00pm, in 384 Davenport Hall.

I specialize in historical archaeology as an Associate Professor in Anthropology. My empirical research addresses the dynamics of social group affiliations among Africans, Europeans, and various social groups within the Americas in the 18th-20th centuries. These research initiatives include interpretative frameworks focusing on diaspora studies, regional systems and commodity chains, social group identities, ethnic group dynamics and racialization, stylistic and symbolic elements of material culture, consumption patterns, and analysis of craft and industrial enterprises. I am an affiliate faculty member of the Department of Landscape Architecture, the Center for African Studies and the Department of African American Studies, offering courses addressing African diaspora subjects and issues of racialization. I am also a member of the College of Law faculty and offer interdisciplinary seminars for graduate and law students. The Department of Anthropology also offers graduate studies concentration in historical archaeology.

Resources

I have created a course web page using the University's Compass program. Enrolled students can access the course web page by logging onto the Compass system, which will display all existing web pages for your courses. Choose "Historical Archaeology" from the display list and you can access the course syllabus, assignments, lecture notes and illustrations, and other online class resources. The logon page for Compass is available at: https://compass.illinois.edu/.

Internet resources on historical archaeology, which are suggested only and not required reading for this course, are available at: http://www.anthro.illinois.edu/faculty/cfennell/bookmark2.html.

Internet resources on African and African-American archaeology, cultures, and history, which are suggested only and not required reading for this course, are available at: http://www.diaspora.illinois.edu/bookmark3.html.

A non-exhaustive bibliography of other studies in historical archaeology is provided below, following the course schedule, as suggested readings only.

examples of Yoruba, Haiti, African-American, and Anglo-American house plans

Required Readings

  • In Small Things Forgotten: An Archaeology of Early American Life, by James Deetz (Anchor Books, 1996).

  • Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800, by Leland Ferguson (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992).

  • Additional articles and book excerpts listed in particular lesson plans below will be available through electronic reserve in the course web site available through the University's Compass program.

    Suggested Readings: Historical Archaeology, by Charles E. Orser, Jr. (Prentice Hall, 2d ed., 2004). This textbook is suggested reading only, and is not required.

    Grading Policy

    Your course grade will be determined by the grades you earn on the following: midterm exam (30% of course grade); Exhibit Analysis Paper (25%); and final exam (45%). Your regular attendance and active participation are of central importance for this course to provide you with a satisfying educational experience. Good attendance, class preparation, and note-taking will be very important for your ability to perform well, particularly on exams. The exams will follow a format of multiple choice questions and/or short-answer questions. The analysis paper will be due in class on Dec. 8, and will involve your visiting a museum, archaeology site, or heritage site and analyzing a relevant exhibit in the context of the subjects we are examining in this course. This course will fulfill a general education requirement for: Cultural Studies, Non-Western - U.S. Minority Culture(s); and Humanities & the Arts - Historical and Philosophical Perspectives.

    When taking exams and completing written assignments, you will be responsible for knowing the concepts and terms discussed in the assigned readings, in the films shown in class, and in the topics covered in lectures, handouts, and web page or power point summaries. When preparing assignments, be careful that you do not plagiarize the works of another; that is, do not present the work or words of another author in a verbatim manner as your own. Consult the University's regulations for more information on the hazards of plagiarism, at http://studentcode.illinois.edu/. Assignments handed in late will lose 10% of the possible credit after the class in which they are due, and 10% more for each subsequent day late. No make-ups are provided for missed exams or assignments in the absence of documented and legitimate medical or family emergencies.

    Class Schedule

    Questions and Methods of Historical Archaeology

    Week 1.  Aug. 25 and 27.    Introduction to Historical Archaeology
      Introductory comments and overview of structure of course.
      Required reading: Deetz, chap. 1.
      Aug. 25: in-class introduction and discussions.
      Aug. 27: Class does not meet this day. Instead, at a time convenient to you, watch the following film on historical archaeology questions and methods via online streaming: The Search for Josiah Henson, Time Team America (PBS 2014), available online at http://video.pbs.org/video/2365243972/. This film conveys an archaeology project focused on the remains of an 1830s plantation once home to Josiah Henson, the enslaved man who inspired the character of Tom in Harriet Beecher Stowe's famous novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. You can also explore short film clips on the "tools of the trade" of doing archaeology online at http://www.pbs.org/time-team/experience-archaeology/ (PBS 2014).
    Week 2.  Sept. 1 and 3.    Defining Historical Archaeology
      Required reading: Deetz, chap. 2.
    Week 3.  Sept. 8 and 10.    Material Culture Created and Forgotten
      Required reading: Deetz, chaps. 3-5.
    Week 4.  Sept. 15 and 17    Interpreting the Forgotten: Studying Material Culture
      Required reading: Deetz, chap. 6.
      Film: Secret Weapon of the Confederacy (Nat'l Geographic, 2013), on the history and archaeology of the Civil War submarine, the H. L. Hunley. This film coveys an impressive set of investigative methods used to recover this sunken vessel and solve the mysteries of its final voyage.
    Doing Historical Archaeology

    Week 5.  Sept. 22 and 24.    Surveying and Locating Historical Archaeology Sites Week 6.  Sept. 29 and Oct. 1.    Written and Wrought: Using Documentary Records, Oral Histories, and Folklore Week 7.  Oct. 6 and 8.    Foodways and Provisioning
      Required reading: excerpts from Doing Historical Archaeology: Exercises Using Documentary, Oral, and Material Evidence, by Russell Barber (Prentice Hall, 1994) (on electronic reserve); "Provisioning Tidewater Towns," by Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (on electronic reserve).
      Film: Ghost in Your Genes (Nova 2006). Among other subjects, this documentary details trends in genetic and epigenetic research, showing the ways in which human physiologies are impacted by environmental and nutritional stresses. Historical archaeology projects often address the adequacy of past people's resources for health levels and the possibilities of investigating DNA connections between populations across time and space.
    Week 8.  Oct. 13 and 15.    Recovering, Classifying, and Analyzing Artifacts Week 9.  Oct. 20 and 22.    Stylistic Analyses and Examples from Mortuary Sites
      Required reading: "Death's Head, Cherub, Urn and Willow," by James Deetz and Edwin S. Dethlefsen, with expanded illustrations (review all illustrations associated with the image map labelled as Figure 3 in this article), available online at: http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/deathshead.html.
      Film: Secrets of the Dead: Resurrecting Richard III (PBS, Sept. 2014). This documentary presents cutting-edge methods on analyzing stable isotope data retrieved from burial sites to determine geographic and dietary patterns for an individual. These techniques are being employed increasingly in projects focused on the historical archaeology of the Americas and the movement of peoples, for example, from different regions of Africa to the locations in the Americas.
      Suggested reading: "Cemeteries: Living with the Dead," by Randall McGuire, in Invisible America: Unearthing Our Hidden History, edited by Mark P. Leone and Neil A. Silberman, pp. 244-45. New York: Henry Holt, 1995 (on electronic reserve in Compass).
    1998 aerial view of New Philadelphia site with town lot overlay
    Blue Ridge Gap at Harpers Ferry

    Studying Social Dynamics and Change

    Week 10.  Oct. 27 and 29.    Explanation in Historical Archaeology // Analysis of Race and Racialization
      Required reading: Deetz, chaps. 7-8.
      Film: The African Burial Ground: An American Discovery (Gen. Serv. Adm. 1994). This film provides an account of the grass-roots community movement that directed the excavation and analysis of part of an African Burial Ground located beneath the streets of central Manhattan.
    Week 11.  Nov. 3 and 5.    African Diasporas in the Americas
      Required reading: Deetz, chaps. 8-9.
    Week 12.  Nov. 10 and 12.    Landscape, Architecture and Households in Early African America
      Required readings: Ferguson, prologue, introduction, chaps. 1-2.
      Film: The Language You Cry In (California Newsreel, 1998). This film tells a story of how African Americans in the coastal areas of Georgia and South Carolina retained links with their West African heritage despite the horrors of the middle passage, slavery, and segregation, including links of a Mende language song.
    Week 13.  Nov. 17 and 19.    Subsistence and Spirituality in Early African America
      Required reading: Ferguson, chaps. 3-4, epilogue.
    Nov. 21-29.    Thanksgiving Break! Classes do not meet.

    Week 14.  Dec. 1 and 3.    Analyzing Gender, Class, and Ethnicity
      Required readings: Elizabeth M. Scott, Through the Lens of Gender: Archaeology, Inequality, and Those of Little Note, in Those of Little Note: Gender, Race and Class in Historical Archaeology, Elizabeth M. Scott, ed., pp. 3-26 (U. Arizona Press, 1994) (on electronic reserve); LouAnn Wurst, A Class All Its Own: Explorations of Class Formation and Conflict, in Historical Archaeology, edited by Martin Hall and Stephen Silliman, pp. 190-206 (Blackwell, 2006) (on electronic reserve); Roberta Greenwood, The Chinese in the Cities of the West, in Unlocking the Past: Celebrating Historical Archaeology in North America, edited by Lu Ann De Cunzo and John Jameson, Jr., pp. 45-49 (Univ. Press of Florida, 2005) (on electronic reserve).
    Week 15.  Dec. 8.    The Uses of Historical Archaeology // Concluding Observations
      Review for final exam.

      Exhibit Analysis Paper due in class on Dec. 8.
    Final Exam:    Friday, Dec. 11, 8:00am to 11:00am, in 1000 Lincoln Hall.
      The University schedule of final exam times for most classes is available online.
    New Philadelphia excavators

    Suggested Readings

    The following is a sampling and nonexhaustive list of additional suggested readings that address a variety of topics and studies within the subject of historical archaeology.

    Adams, William H. 1976. Trade Networks and Interaction Spheres -- A View from Silcott. Historical Archaeology 10: 99-112.

    Adams, William H. 1977. Silcott, Washington: Ethnoarchaeology of a Rural American Community, Reports of Investigation 54, Washington State University.

    Agorsah, Kofi, editor. 1994. Maroon Heritage, University of the West Indies Press.

    Akin, Marjorie H. 2014. Numismatic Archaeology of North America: A Field Guide, Left Coast Press.

    Andren, Anders (translated by Alan Crozier). 1998. Between Artifacts and Texts: Historical Archaeology in Global Perspective, Plenum Press.

    Armstrong, Douglas A. 1990. The Old Village and the Great House: An Archaeological and Historical Examination of Drax Hall Plantation, St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica, University of Illinois Press.

    Armstrong, Douglas A. 2003. Creole Transformation from Slavery to Freedom: Historical Archaeology of the East End Community, St. John, Virgin Island, University Press of Florida.

    Archer, Steven, and Kevin Bartoy, editors. 2007. Between Dirt and Discussion: Methods, Methodology and Interpretation in Historical Archaeology, Springer Press.

    Ascher, Robert. 1961. Analogy in Archaeological Interpretation. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 17: 317-25.

    Baker, Vernon G. 1978. Historical Archaeology of Black Lucy's Garden, Andover, Massachusetts: Ceramics from the Site of a Nineteenth Century Afro-American, Philips Academy.

    Barile, Kerri. 2004. Hegemony within the Household: The Perspective from a South Carolina Plantation. In Household Chores and Household Choices: Theorizing the Domestic Sphere in Historical Archaeology, edited by Kerri Barile and Jamie Brandon, University of Alabama Press.

    Barker, David. 2001. "The Usual Classes of Useful Articles": Staffordshire Ceramics Reconsidered. Ceramics in America 1: 73-93.

    Barnes, Jodi, editor. 2011. The Materiality of Freedom: Archaeologies of Post-Emancipation Life, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia.

    Baugher, Sherene. 2014. Archaeology and Preservation of Gendered Landscapes, Springer, New York.

    Baugher, Sherene, and Richard Veit, editors. 2014. The Archaeology of American Cemeteries and Gravemarkers, University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

    Baugher, Sherene, and Robert W. Venables. 1987. Ceramics as Indicators of Status and Class in Eighteenth-Century New York. In Consumer Choice in Historical Archaeology, edited by Suzanne Spencer-Wood, pp. 31-53, Plenum Press.

    Beaudry, Mary. 1996. Reinventing Historical Archaeology. In Historical Archaeology and the Study of American Culture, edited by Lu Ann De Cunzo and Bernard Herman. University of Tennessee Press.

    Beaudry, Mary, editor. 1988. Documentary Archaeology in the New World, Cambridge University Press.

    Beaudry, Mary C., Lauren J. Cook and Stephen A. Mrozowski. 1991. Artifacts and Active Voices: Material Culture as Social Discourse. In The Archaeology of Inequality, edited by Randall H. McGuire and Robert Paynter, pp. 150-191, Blackwell Publishers.

    Beaudry, Mary C., Janet Long, Henry M. Miller, Fraser D. Neiman and Gary Wheeler Stone. 2000. A Vessel Typology for Early Chesapeake Ceramics: The Potomac Typological System. In Approaches to Material Culture Research for Historical Archaeologists, compiled by David R. Brauner, pp. 11-36, Society for Historical Archaeology.

    Beaudry, Mary C., and Stephen A. Mrozowski. 2001. Cultural Space and Worker Identity in the Company City: Nineteenth-Century Lowell, Massachusetts. In The Archaeology of Urban Landscapes: Explorations in Slumland, edited by Alan Mayne and Tim Murray, Cambridge University Press.

    Bell, Alison. 2005. White Ethnogenesis and Gradual Capitalism: Perspectives from Colonial Archaeological Sites in the Chesapeake. American Anthropologist, 107(3): 446-59.

    Bell, Edward L. 1990. The Historical Archaeology of Mortuary Behavior: Coffin Hardware from Ux bridge, Massachusetts. Historical Archaeology 24: 54-78.

    Blakey, Michael L. 2001. Bioarchaeology of the African Diaspora in the Americas: Its Origins and Scope. Annual Review of Anthropology 30: 387-422.

    Bower, Beth A. 1985. The Pottery-Making Trade in Colonial Philadelphia: The Growth of an Early Urban Industry. In Domestic Pottery of the Northeastern United States, edited by Sarah P. Turnbaugh, pp. 265-284, Academic Press.

    Bowser, Brenda J. 2000. From Pottery to Politics: An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Political Factionalism, Ethnicity, and Domestic Pottery Style in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 7(3): 219-48.

    Brighton, Stephen A. 2009. Historical Archaeology of the Irish Diaspora: A Transnational Approach, University of Tennessee Press.

    Brown, Gail. 2001. Wounded Knee: The Conflict of Interpretation.In Myth, Memory and the Making of the American Landscape, edited by Paul Shackel, University Press of Florida.

    Brown, Margaret Kimball and Lawrie Cena Dean. 1995. The French Colony in the Mid-Mississippi Valley. American Kestrel Books.

    Brown, Ras Michael. 2014. African-Atlantic Cultures and the South Carolina Lowcountry, Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Camp, Stacey Lynn. 2013. The Archaeology of Citizenship, University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

    Campbell, Colin. 1987. The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism, Basil Blackwell.

    Carson, Cary. 1994. The Consumer Revolution in Colonial British America: Why Demand? In Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century, edited by Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, pp. 483-697, University Press of Virginia.

    Carson, Cary, Norman F. Barka, William M. Kelso, Garry Wheeler Stone and Dell Upton. 1981. Impermanent Architecture in the Southern American Colonies. Winterthur Portfolio 16(2/3): 135-96.

    Casella, Eleanor, and James Symonds, editors. 2005. Industrial Archaeology: Future Directions, Springer Press.

    Cha–Jua, Sundiata Keita. 2000. America's First Black Town, Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830–1915. University of Illinois Press.

    Cipolla, Craig N., and Katherine H. Hayes, editors. 2015. Rethinking Colonialism: Comparative Archaeological Approaches, University Press of Florida.

    Claasen, Cheryl, editor. 1992. Exploring Gender through Archaeology: Selected Papers from the 1991 Boone Conference, Prehistory Press.

    Cleland, Charles and James Fitting. 1968. The Crisis of Identity: Theory in Historic Sites Archaeology. The Conference of Historic Sites Archaeology Papers 2(2):124-138.

    Connah, Graham. 2001. The Lake Innes Estate: Privilage and Servitude in Ninteenth-Century Australia. World Archaeology 33(1): 137-54.

    Cooksey, Susan, Robin Poynor, and Hein Vanhee, editors. 2013. Kongo Across the Waters, University of Florida Press, Gainesville.

    Cressey, Pamela J., John F. Stephens, Steven J. Shephard, and Barbara H. Magid. 1982. The Core-Periphery Relationship and the Archaeological Record in Alexandria, Virginia. In Archaeology of Urban America: The Search for Pattern and Process, edited by Roy S. Dickens, Jr., pp. 143-73, Academic Press.

    Crist, Thomas. 2002. Empowerment, Ecology and Evidence: The Relevance of Mortuary Archaeology to the Public. In Public Benefits of Archaeology, edited by Barbara Little, University Press of Florida.

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, and Eugene Rochberg-Halton. 1981. The Meanings of Things: Domestic Symbols and the Self, Cambridge University Press.

    Davis, James. 1998. Frontier Illinois. Indiana University Press.

    Deagan, Kathleen. 1982. Avenues of Inquiry in Historical Archaeology. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 5: 151-77.

    Deagan, Kathleen, and MacMahon, D. 1995. Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress of Freedom, University Press of Florida.

    De Cunzo, Lu Ann. 2004. A Historical Archaeology of Delaware: People, Contexts, and the Cultures of Agriculture, University of Tennessee Press.

    De Cunzo, Lu Ann, and John H. Jameson, editors. 2005. Unlocking The Past: Celebrating Historical Archaeology In North America, University Press of Florida.

    Deetz, James. 1965. The Dynamics of Stylistic Change in Arikara Ceramics. Illinois Studies in Anthropology, No. 4. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.

    Deetz, James. 1987. Scientific Humanism and Humanistic Science: A Plea for Paradigmatic Pluralism in Historical Archaeology. In Mirror and Metaphor: Material and Social Constructions of Reality, Daniel W. Ingersoll, Jr. and Gordon Bronitsky, editors, pp. 367-380.

    Deetz, James. 1993. Flowerdew Hundred: The Archaeology of a Virginia Plantation, 1619-1864, University Press of Virginia.

    Deetz, James, and Patricia Scott Deetz. 2000. The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony. W. H. Freeman, New York.

    Deetz, James, and Edwin S. Deflefsen. 1967. Death's Head, Cherub, Urn and Willow. Natural History 76(3): 29-37.

    Delle, James A. 1998. An Archaeology of Social Space: Analyzing Coffee Plantations in Jamaica's Blue Mountains, Plenum Press.

    Delle, James A. 2014. The Colonial Caribbean: Landscapes of Power in Jamaica's Plantation System, Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Delle, James A., Stephen A. Mrozowski, and Robert Paynter, editors. 2000. Lines that Divide: Historical Archaeologies of Race, Class, and Gender, University of Tennessee Press.

    Douglas, Mary, and Baron Isherwood. 1979. The World of Goods, Basic Books.

    Egan, Geoff, and R. L. Michael, editors. 1999. Old and New Worlds, Oxbow.

    Epperson, Terrence. 1999. The Contested Commons: Archaeologies of Race, Repression and Resistance in New York City. In Historical Archaeologies of Capitalism, edited by Mark Leone and Parker Potter, Klewer Academic Press.

    Epperson, Terrence. 1999. Constructing Difference: The Social and Spatial Order of the Chesapeake Plantation. In "I, Too Am America": Archaeological Studies of African-American Life, edited by Theresa A. Singleton, University Press of Virginia.

    Epperson, Terrence. 2004. Critical Race Theory and the Archaeology of the African Diaspora. Historical Archaeology 38(1).

    Falk, Lisa, editor. 1991. Historical Archaeology in Global Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Falola, Toyin, and Akin Ogundiran, editors. 2007. Archaeology of Atlantic Africa and the African Diaspora, Indiana University Press.

    Farnsworth, Paul, editor. 2001. Island Lives: Historical Archaeologies of the Caribbean, University Alabama Press.

    Feder, Kenneth L. 1994. A Village of Outcasts: Historical Archaeology and Documentary Research at the Lighthouse Site, Mayfield.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2000. Conjuring Boundaries: Inferring Past Identities from Religious Artifacts. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 4(4): 281-313.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2003. Group Identity, Individual Creativity and Symbolic Generation in a BaKongo Diaspora. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 7(1): 1-31.

    Fennell, Christopher. 2007. Crossroads and Cosmologies: Diasporas and Ethnogenesis in the New World, University Press of Florida.

    Fennell, Christopher, editor. 2008. African Diaspora Archaeology, Society for Historical Archaeology, Tucson.

    Fennell, Christopher, Paul A. Shackel, Terrance J. Martin, editors. 2010. New Philadelphia: Racism, Community, and the Illinois Frontier specially edited thematic issue of Historical Archaeology 44(1).

    Fennell, Christopher C. 2011. Early African America: Archaeological Studies of Significance and Diversity. Journal of Archaeological Research 19(1): 1-49.

    Fennell, Christopher, editor. 2011. Revealing Landscapes, Society for Historical Archaeology, Tucson.

    Ferguson, Leland, editor. 1977. Historical Archaeology and the Importance of Material Things, Society for Historical Archaeology.

    Ferris, Neal, Rodney Harrison, and Michael V. Wilcox, editors. 2015. Rethinking Colonial Pasts through Archaeology, Oxford University Press.

    Fisher, Charles, editor. 2003. People, Places, and Material Things: Historical Archaeology of Albany, New York, New York State Museum Bulletin 499, New York State Museum.

    Fox, Georgia L. 2015. The Archaeology of Smoking and Tobacco, University Press of Florida.

    Franklin, Maria. 2001. The Archaeological Dimensions of Soul Food: Interpreting Race, Culture and Afro-Virginian Identity. In Race and the Archaeology of Identity, edited by Charles Orser, Jr., University of Utah Press.

    Franklin, Maria, and Fesler, Garrett. 1999. The Exploration of Ethnicity and the Historical Archaeological Record. In Historical Archaeology, Identity Formation, and the Interpretation of Ethnicity, edited by Maria Franklin and Garrett Fesler, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

    Funari, Pedro Paulo A., Martin Hall, and Sian Jones, editors. 1999. Historical Archaeology: Back from the Edge, Routledge, One World Archaeology 31.

    Funari, Pedro Paulo A., and Charles E. Orser, Jr., editors. 2014. Current Perspectives on the Archaeology of African Slavery in Latin America, Springer Press, New York.

    Funari, Pedro Paulo A., and Maria Ximena Senatore, editors. 2014. Archaeology of Culture Contact and Colonialism in Spanish and Portuguese America , Springer, New York.

    Garman, James C. 1994. Viewing the Color Line Through the Material Culture of Death. Historical Archaeology 28(3): 74-93.

    Gathercole, Peter, and David Lowenthal, editors. 1990. The Politics of the Past, Unwin Hyman.

    Geier, Clarence R., Douglas D. Scott, and Lawrence E. Babits, editors. 2014. From These Honored Dead: Historical Archaeology of the American Civil War, University Press of Florida, Gaineville.

    Geier, Clarence R., Douglas D. Scott, Lawrence E. Babits, and David Orr, editors. 2010. Historical Archaeology of Military Sites: Method and Topic, Texas A&M University Press.

    Geier, Clarence R., and Susan E. Winter, editors. 1996. Look to the Earth: Historical Archaeology and the American Civil War, University of Tennessee Press.

    Glassie, Henry. 1975. Folk Housing in Middle Virginia: A Structural Analaysis of Historic Artifacts, University of Tennessee Press.

    Glassie, Henry. 1999. Material Culture, Indiana University Press.

    Glassie, Henry. 2000. Vernacular Architecture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Goodwin, Lorinda. 2010. An Archaeology of Manners: The Polite World of the Merchant Elite of Colonial Massachusetts, Springer Press.

    Gould, Richard A., and Michael B. Schiffer, editors. 1981. Modern Material Culture: The Archaeology of Us, Academic Press.

    Groover, Mark D. 2003. An Archaeological Study of Rural Capitalism and Material Life: The Gibbs Farmstead in Southern Appalachia, 1790-1920, Springer Press.

    Groover, Mark D. 2008. Archaeology of North American Farmsteads, University Press of Florida.

    Hall, Martin, and Stephen W. Silliman, editors. 2006. Historical Archaeology, Wiley-Blackwell.

    Hardesty, Donald. 1985. Evolution on the Industrial Frontier. In The Archaeology of Frontiers and Boundaries, edited by Stanton W. Green and Stephen M. Perlman, pp. 213-29, Academic Press.

    Hardesty, Donald L. 1988. The Archaeology of Mining and Miners: A View from the Silver State, Society for Historical Archaeology.

    Harrington, J. C. 1955. Archaeology as an Auxiliary Science to American History. American Anthropologist 57(6):1121-1130.

    Haviser, Jay, editor. 1999. African Sites Archaeology in the Caribbean, Markus Weiner.

    Hayes, Katherine H. 2014. Slavery before Race: Europeans, Africans, and Indians at Long Island's Sylvester Manor Plantation, 1651-1884, New York University Press, New York.

    Heath, Barbara J. 1999. Hidden Lives: The Archaeology of Slave Life at Thomas Jefferson's Poplar Forest, University Press of Virginia.

    Hicks, Dan, and Mary C. Beaudry, editors. 2006. Cambridge Companion to Historical Archaeology, Cambridge University Press.

    Hodder, Ian. 1982. Symbols in Action, Cambridge University Press.

    Hodge, Christina J. 2014. Consumerism and the Emergence of the Middle Class in Colonial America, Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Horning, Audrey. 2001. Of Saints and Sinners: Mythic Landscapes of the Old and New South. In Myth, Memory and the Making of the American Landscape, edited by Paul Shackel, University Press of Florida.

    Isaac, Rhys. 1982. The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790, University of North Carolina Press.

    Janowitz, Meta F., and Diane Dallal, editors. 2015. Tales of Gotham, Historical Archaeology, Ethnohistory and Microhistory of New York City, Springer Press.

    Jones, Sian. 1997. The Archaeology of Ethnicity, Routledge.

    Joseph, J. W. and Mary Beth Reed. 1997. "We Were Just Dirt Farmers": The Archaeology of Piedmont Farmstead Landscapes. In Carolina's Historical Landscapes: Archaeological Perspectives, edited by Linda Stine, Martha Zierden, Lesley Drucker and Christopher Judge, University of Tennessee Press.

    Keener, Craig. 1999. An Ethnohistorical Analysis of Iroqouis Assault Tactics Used Against Fortified Settlements of the Northeast in the Seventeenth Century. Ethnohistory 46(4): 777-807.

    Kelso, William M. 1984. Kingsmill Plantations, 1619-1800: Archaeology of Country Life in Colonial Virginia, Academic Press.

    King, Julia. 1994. Rural Landscapes in the Mid-Ninteenth-Century Chesapeake. In Historical Archaeology of the Chesapeake, edited by Paul Shackel and Barbara Little, Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Kruczek-Aaron, Hadley. 2015. Everyday Religion: An Archaeology of Protestant Belief and Practice in the Nineteenth Century, University Press of Florida.

    LaRoche, Cheryl. and Michael L. Blakey. 1997. Seizing Intellectual Power. Historical Archaeology 31(3).

    Leone, Mark P. 1984. Interpreting Ideology in Historical Archaeology: Using the Rules of Perspective in the William Paca Garden, Annapolis Maryland. In Ideology, Power, and Prehistory, edited by Daniel Miller and Christopher Tilley, Cambridge University Press.

    Leone, Mark P. 1986. Symbolic, Structural and Critical Archaeology. In American Archaeology Past and Future, edited by Don Fowler and Jeremy Sabloff, Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Leone, Mark P. 2010. Critical Historical Archaeology, Left Coast Press.

    Leone, Mark P., and Parker B. Potter, Jr., editors. 1988. The Recovery of Meaning: Historical Archaeology in the Eastern United States, Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Leone, Mark P., and Parker B. Potter, Jr., editors. 1999. Historical Archaeologies of Capitalism, Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

    Leone, Mark P., Parker B. Potter, Jr., and Paul A. Shackel. 1987. Toward A Critical Archaeology. Current Anthropology 28(3): 283-301.

    Leone, Mark P., and Paul A. Shackel. 1987. Forks, Clocks, and Power. In Mirror and Metaphor: Material and Social Constructions of Reality, edited by Daniel W. Ingersoll, Jr. and Gordon Bronitsky, pp. 45-62, University Press of America.

    Lewis, Kenneth E. 2005. Camden: Historical Archaeology in the South Carolina Backcountry, Wadsworth Publishing.

    Little, Barbara J. Historical Archaeology: Why the Past Matters, Left Coast Press.

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